2On the AP exam there are two types of essay questions FRQs – Free Response QuestionsThere are four questions total2 from US1, 2 from USIIYou choose one question from each category35 minutes each (5-10 planning, writing)DBQ – Document Based Question1 question60 minutes totalTHIS IS CHANGING!!!!!!
3What is a DBQ?The required DBQ differs from the standard essays in its emphasis on your ability to analyze and synthesize historical data and assess verbal, quantitative, or pictorial materials as historical evidence. Like the standard essays, however, the DBQ is judged on its thesis and argument. Although confined to no single format, the documents are unlikely to be the familiar classics (such as the Emancipation Proclamation or the Declaration of Independence), but their authors may be major historical figures. The documents vary in length and are chosen to illustrate the interactions and complexities of the historical process. They may include charts, graphs, cartoons, and pictures, as well as written materials.The DBQ typically requires students to relate the documents to a historical period or theme and thus to focus on major periods and issues. For this reason, outside knowledge -- information gained from materials other than the documents -- is very important and must be incorporated into your essay if the highest scores are to be earned.
5GOOD WRITING IS CLEAR THINKING!!!!! There is a 15 minute mandatory reading (brainstorming) period at the beginning of the DBQ for a reasonIt is recommended that you spent 45 minutes writing the DBQ(1 hour total)GOOD WRITING IS CLEAR THINKING!!!!!
6STEP 1: Dissect the Question Read it three times. Do not move on until you are sure you understand it.Identify the task by underlining the key words (Identify, Evaluate, Analyze, Determine to what extent…)Ask yourself:Do you understand the terms of the question?What is the question asking you to do?On what time period should your answer focus?Outline the question
7STEP 2: Brainstorm outside info Write down any ideas/information that may be related to the question.Be sure to include Capital Letter Evidence, including names, dates, places, events, vocabulary…
8STEP 3: Categorize Outside Info Categories will be determined on the question being askedThink pro/con, federal/state, foreign/domestic, regional differences?Consider:PoliticalEconomicSocialReligiousIntellectualArtistic
9STEP 4: Write your tentative thesis What is your position? Criteria?Does your thesis answer HOW & WHY?Writing Thesis ResourcesIf your thesis is confusing,your essay will be confusing
10Step 5: Outline Your Essay You can have as many paragraphs as you need!Organize your paragraphs around your position and criteria and/or your conceptsList all of your O.I. and documentsRemember, you want to use most of the documents!
11STEP 6: Read the Documents Questions to Ask Yourself About the DocumentsAuthor - Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author's point of view?Place and time - Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source?Prior knowledge - Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source?Audience - For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source?Reason - Why was this source produced at the time it was produced?The Main Idea - What point is the source trying to convey?Significance - Why is this source important? Inferences…
12Remember, docs. can be used in a variety of ways! Step 7: Add relevant documents to your outlineInclude the documents that are relevant to support the ideas in the paragraph.Use most of the documents given.Remember, docs. can be used in a variety of ways!
13STEP 8: Review ThesisUpdate your thesis statement based on the combined content of the documents and your prior knowledge (if needed)
15Carousel Brainstorming Round 1: Dissect Question, list important wordsRound 2: Edit Question, List CLE/OIRound 3: Add CLE, categorize/conceptualize “BUCKET”Round 4: Edit CLE/categorization. Write ThesisRound 5: Evaluate Thesis; Does it directly answer all parts of the question?H.W. Outline DBQ, THEN read docs, keeping in mind APPARTS
17The “Top Bun” of your essay! Introductory ParagraphThe “Top Bun” of your essay!4-6 sentences
18The Introductory Paragraph Establish TIME & PLACE.Create a clear, THESIS STATEMENT. [underline or highlight it!]Allude to the SUB-TOPICS or categories you will discuss to support your thesis statementFocus on the question at hand—do NOT begin with a “flowery” sentence!No “laundry list!”
19The “tasty” part of your essay! 8-12 sentences+ per paragraph The “”Meat”” ParagraphsThe “tasty” part of your essay!8-12 sentences+ per paragraph
20The “”Meat”” Paragraphs Identify your sub-topic or category in the first sentence – RELATE TO THESIS.Include the documents that are relevant to support the ideas in the paragraph.Use most of the documents given.Bring in supportive outside information. This is critical!! Make sure to have a balance! * o.i.’s = “outside information”Explain, why were these documents selected?
21NEVER begin with: In Document 3, … How to Reference a Document in Your EssayThomas Paine, in his pamphlet, Common Sense, said: “………………….”Joe Smith, a mid-Western delegate to the Republican convention in 1912, agreed with…..The 19c historian, Frederick Jackson Turner, felt that …………………. (Doc. E)NEVER begin with: In Document 3, …
22The “Bottom Bun” of your essay! It holds it all together! The Concluding ParagraphThe “Bottom Bun” of your essay!It holds it all together!3-4 sentences
23The Concluding” Paragraph Start with a “concluding phrase.”Restate your thesis statement a bit differently.Put your essay answer in a larger historical perspective.End of some trend/movement/idea, etc.Beginning of some trend/movement/ideaEnd of one & beginning of another.Do NOT end on the note that this is the reason we are where we are today!
27The QuestionAlthough the New England and Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in development occur?Use the documents AND your knowledge of the time period up to 1700 to develop your answer.
28Although New England and the Chesapeake regions were both settled mainly by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies.
29By 1700, the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed into two distinct societies. What is wrong with this thesis? What is your position? What is your criteria? It doesn’t answer how or why there are 2 distinct societies
30By 1700, the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed into two distinct societies due to their motives for coming to America. What is wrong with this thesis? Doesn’t say what their motives are, or how motives created different societies
31By 1700, the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed into two distinct societies. The Chesapeake society developed more as a result of English citizens who were looking for wealth while the New England society developed as a society based on religion. What is wrong with this thesis? Answers WHY but not HOW.
32The Chesapeake society developed as a result of English citizens who were looking to become wealthy while New England developed because of religion, which can be examined by analyzing the social and political systems that developed in the regions before What is wrong with this thesis?
33Underline = Position you are taking as to why the colonies developed differently Circle = criteria being used to prove position
34Organization of Essay P1 P2 P3 P4 New England – Religion – Social StructureP2New England – Religion – Political StructureP3Chesapeake – Wealth – Social StructureP4Chesapeake – Wealth – Political Structure
35The New England & Chesapeake colonies developed into two distinct societies which led to differences in the social, political, religious and economic structures of each society. What is wrong with this thesis?
36The New England & Chesapeake colonies developed into two distinct societies due to the make up of the initial settlers, which led to differences in the social, religious and economic structures of each society. What is wrong with this thesis?
37The New England & Chesapeake colonies developed into two distinct societies due to make up of the initial settlers, which led to differences in the political and economic structures of each society. What is wrong with this thesis? What was the initial make up?
38The New England & Chesapeake colonies developed into two distinct societies because New England was settled by families, while the Chesapeake was settled by gold-seeking men, leading to differences in the political economic and social structures of each society. What is wrong with this thesis?
39Underline = Position you are taking as to why the colonies developed differently Circle = criteria being used to prove position
404. Outline the EssayWithout looking at documents
41OrganizationP1New England – Families – Political StructureP2New England – Families – economic structureP3New England – Families – Social StructureP4Chesapeake – gold-seeking men– Political StructureP5Chesapeake – gold-seeking men– Economic StructureP6Chesapeake – gold-seeking men– Social Structure
42The geographic and religious differences of the regions led to different economic and political structures.What is wrong with this thesis?What are the geographic & religious differences?
43Although New England and the Chesapeake regions were both settled by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions evolved into two distinct societies because the Chesapeake climate & soil was suited to establishing large plantations, while New England colonies soil was rocky and difficult to cultivate. This led to the regions developing different political and social structures.
45By 1700 the New England and Chesapeake colonies developed into two distinct societies in spite the fact they were both settled by people of English origin, because upon arrival, the New English set up a theocracy while the Chesapeake colonists established a government based on wealth and aristocracy, leading differences in the economic and political structures of the colonies.
475. Documents Analyze all documents Look at title, date & author Why are they significant?Why do they show?
48Fit as many documents as you can into your already outlined essay. Each document does different things so try to use most if not all of them.Try to cite the document by type“As the map (document B) indicates…and as the cartoon (document D) shows…” Or by name: “As Hamilton argued, the National Bank was essential for national growth.”
49If possible, like brief descriptions to the names you use. “Alexander Stephens, a Whig senator from Georgia, noted in the Southern Literary Journal that the South…”
506. Strive for BalanceWhile coverage of the documents is important, but the INCLUSION OF OUTSIDE INFORMATION IS CRITICAL. Strive for balance.
51Preferred ApproachState your thesis clearly and directly in the first paragraph.Write a paragraph setting the scene and demonstrating outside knowledgeFinally, move on to support your thesis with a nice blend of SPECIFIC information from both documents and outside sources.Write a concession paragraph and conclusion.