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WRAP as an Evidence-Based Practice: The Ohio Statewide WRAP Study Judith A. Cook, Ph.D. Professor Center on Mental Health Services Research & Policy Department.

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Presentation on theme: "WRAP as an Evidence-Based Practice: The Ohio Statewide WRAP Study Judith A. Cook, Ph.D. Professor Center on Mental Health Services Research & Policy Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 WRAP as an Evidence-Based Practice: The Ohio Statewide WRAP Study Judith A. Cook, Ph.D. Professor Center on Mental Health Services Research & Policy Department of Psychiatry University of Illinois at Chicago May 19, 2011

2 A Word of Thanks to our Funders U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability & Rehabilitation Research Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability & Rehabilitation Research; & the Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services & Consumer Affairs Program, under Cooperative Agreement No. H133B The views expressed do not reflect the policy or position of any Federal agency.

3 Important Question: How Can Scientists & Advocates Work Together?

4 The Type of Evidence Supporting an Intervention Determines its Grade

5 Evidence-Based Practice An intervention that has been shown to be effective by causing pre-defined outcomes in peoples lives when tested in a randomized controlled trial

6 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) People randomly assigned to experimental (E) or control (C) group E group receives intervention, C doesnt Creates 2 equal groups to compare before & after receiving an intervention Any changes (outcomes) are due to the intervention

7 Grading with the Evidence Pyramid Guide to Research Methods-The Evidence Pyramid;

8 Typical Steps in RCTs Create a manualized version of the intervention (a detailed, how-to manual) to be tested Develop a fidelity assessment measuring extent to which intervention is delivered as intended Train experienced providers of the intervention to deliver the manualized version Recruit a large # of people into the study, interview, & randomly assign them Deliver the intervention using the manual, & maintaining fidelity Collect data from participants at multiple time- points, analyze it, & disseminate results

9 WRAP Intervention Tested in Our Study Lasted for 8 weeks Met for 2 and ½ hours every week Followed a highly standardized curriculum designed by Mary Ellen Copeland and UIC Facilitator curricular innovations discouraged Used a detailed Facilitators Manual and Overhead Slides

10 WRAP Curriculum Session 1: Key concepts of WRAP & recovery Session 2-3: Identify personalized wellness strategies. Engage in exercises to enhance self-esteem, build competence, & explore benefits of peer support. Session 4: Create daily maintenance plan (simple, inexpensive strategies) to stay emotionally and physically healthy. Create plan for recognizing & responding to symptom triggers. Session 5: Identify early warning signs and how these signal a need for additional support Session 6-7: Create crisis plan specifying signs of impending crisis, names of individuals willing to help, & types of assistance preferred. Session 8: Create plan for post-crisis support & learn how to retool WRAP plan after a crisis to avoid relapse. Graduation ceremony

11 Columbus Canton Cleveland Toledo Lorain Dayton WRAP STUDY SITES

12 Participatory Action Research Involved UIC Researchers Working with Dr. Mary Ellen Copeland, Ohio WRAP Educators, Peer-Run Programs, & other Mental Health Organizations to Mount the Study

13 Facilitators in the Ohio WRAP Study

14 Why OHIO was chosen Availability of Certified WRAP Facilitators state- wide as well as Advanced Level WRAP facilitators Large population base from which to recruit study participants Some regions were not saturated with WRAP Cultural diversity in participants was possible State includes rural, urban and suburban areas Supportive state & county mental health authorities and organizations

15 WRAP Study Design Targeted sample size was 500 people with severe mental health challenges Recruited at CMHC & peer programs Subjects were randomized to receive WRAP right away or 9 months later Telephone interviews at study entry (baseline), 2 months post-baseline, & 8 months post-baseline by blinded interviewers from UIC Survey Research Laboratory Participants were paid for their research time

16 Outcomes Assessed Recovery – Recovery Assessment Scale Empowerment – Empowerment Scale Self-Advocacy – Pt. Self-Advocacy Scale Social Support – Medical Outcomes Study Hopefulness – Hope Scale Quality of Life – WHO QOL Symptoms – Brief Symptom Inventory Coping – Brief Cope Scale Stigma – Mental Illness Stigma Scale Physical Health Perceptions – MOS

17 WRAP Study Intervention Challenges Finding qualified WRAP facilitators Identifying locations for intervention delivery Securing space on days and times that were convenient for participants Establishing a network of support for WRAP facilitators Doing long-distance research in another state

18 Importance of Maintaining Fidelity Establishing & maintaining fidelity assures that the critical ingredients of the intervention are being delivered Fidelity prevents individual variations that lower the quality of the intervention Fidelity protects of an intervention against negative influences such as personal biases or politics

19 How We Monitored Fidelity Fidelity checklist reviewed after each session by WRAP experts & researchers On-site observations conducted by WRAP Advanced Level Facilitator Weekly supervision calls between facilitators, local project coordinator, and research staff to review fidelity scores & address any drift Use of detailed Intervention Manual was important to this process

20 How ODMH Supported the Study Helped convene the initial kick-off meeting in Columbus to introduce researchers to stakeholders Provided location for the research study training of WRAP facilitators Linked researchers with county mental health boards Helped study team identify recruitment sites & locate places to hold WRAP sessions

21 County MH Boards Actively Supported the WRAP Study Cuyahoga County Community Mental Health Board Mental Health and Recovery Services Board of Stark County Mental Health and Recovery Services Board of Lucas County Alcohol, Drug and Mental Health Board of Franklin County Lorain County Board of Mental Health Alcohol, Drug Addiction and Mental Health Services Board for Montgomery County

22 Study Process 850 individuals screened for Waves 1-5 o 680 eligible & agreed to participate o 555 (82%) completed Time 1 interviews 276 randomized to E group, 279 C group; 7% combined attrition; E=251, C=268 Ss attended average of 5 classes (out of 8) o 53% attended 6+ groups; 16% attended 0 groups (still counted as receiving WRAP) Average fidelity=91% over all waves (90% wave 1-92% wave 5; no site differences)

23 Study Participant Characteristics 66% female, 34% male Average age: 46 years, range from years old 63% White, 28% Black, 2.9% American Indian/Alaskan Native, <1% Asian/Pacific Islander, 7% other 4.8% Hispanic/Latino 82% High school graduate/GED or more 88% unmarried 67% living in their own home or apartment 76% had been hospitalized for psychiatric reasons Most common self-reported diagnoses: 38% bipolar disorder; 25% depression; 21% schizophrenia spectrum 85% not employed; 51% expected to work next year No sig. differences by study condition

24 WRAP Outcomes In a multivariable longitudinal random- effects regression analysis, WRAP recipients improved more than controls from T1 to T3 on multiple outcomes: o Reduced psychiatric symptom severity o Increased hopefulness o Decreased coping through self-blame o Increased quality of life o Increased self-advocacy o Increased recovery o Increased empowerment

25 Additional Findings The greater the # of WRAP classes attended, the greater WRAP participants… o Reduction in overall symptom severity o Reduction in depressive symptoms o Reduction in symptoms of anxiety o Increased quality of life o Increased sense of recovery

26 Some Qualitative Findings

27 WRAP has helped me to be more motivated and hopeful. Now I have definite ways to help me avoid a major crisis. -Sam

28 Something I learned in the WRAP was helping me with my self-confidence. It also helps me find triggers to keep me out of the hospital. I also use a daily maintenance plan to help me with my every day life. - Steven

29 Additional Qualitative Findings Positive impact on the WRAP facilitators… Working on the research study enhanced their WRAP facilitation skills Have used the research findings in their statewide advocacy Became aware of how practical help provided to participants had a life-changing effect in addition to WRAP (e.g., transportation) Facilitators told us that being in the study had changed their lives for the better

30 I gave a lot and I took a lot out of this research project. -Tom, facilitator I developed a WRAP for dealing with the research study. As a result I lost over 100 pounds. -Rita, facilitator

31 First Journal Article Reporting the Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Study of WRAP Effectiveness

32 WRAP Selected for Inclusion in NREPP, to appear in late 2011 NREPP is the National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices

33 Rewards of Establishing an Intervention as an Evidence-Based Practice More people learn about the intervention It gains greater legitimacy & acceptance Easier to make the case for funding Enhances potential of replication in new forms for diverse audiences Increases the fields knowledge base Attracts attention of the fields researchers

34 HOW TO SUPPORT WRAP AS AN EBP Shift Funding from Ineffective Services to Effective EBP Services Look at what the state funds and how much it spends on different types of services Advocate for implementing WRAP in place of services with little or no evidence base Urge the state to practice parity in funding WRAP on a level with similar services Be willing to demonstrate fidelity to the Copeland Center version of WRAP Provide local support for WRAP facilitators

35 For more information about the study: Information about WRAP: Judith Cook Schizophrenia Bulletin article link early/2011/03/14/schbul.sbr012.full?keytype=ref&ijkey =LFsLUgMpqsVNV1q

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