Presentation on theme: "Mike “Wheels” Breakey. Agenda First some basics Why such a fuss? Tech help—Word, Turn It In, Grammar Checker, Paper Rater APA Formatting Structure Expository."— Presentation transcript:
Mike “Wheels” Breakey
Agenda First some basics Why such a fuss? Tech help—Word, Turn It In, Grammar Checker, Paper Rater APA Formatting Structure Expository Writing Writing Process Outline Examples
Why is this writing THING so bloody important? Both my wife and a friend of mine work HR Resume is often the first contact you have with a potential employer It can (is) the first filter Any typos = TRASH Any grammatical errors = TRASH address MIGHT = TRASH Text based language (LOL, ROFLMAO) = TRASH Guess where they look next? This is before they look at any qualifications What also comes before looking at credential and/or an interview?
Why is this writing THING so bloody important? What do employers want—simple Bing search By far the top requirement (often unmet) is communication skills Almost always, second is Critical Thinking/Analytical thinking Other big traits Problem solvers Those who do not give up at the first sign of adversity Flexible, creative, communicative
Any other reasons for emphasis on writing? Oh, and writing is only one piece of communicating—what are the others again?
What are you writing about? You CANNOT write intelligently without knowing the material GACA Did you actually read it? Title of assignment Thesis What is it? Provides focus—a vector Without it, you will go off the tracks immediately
Basics…Yes Clear, concise, accurate writing Dry…perhaps Fact, not emotion Focused Improvement based on feedback
Basics…NO Flowery Like you speak? Emotional, populist rants The next Great American Novel Kurt Vonnegut
Basics Basic formatting Word—make Word keep the correct APA format! What the heck are all those squiggly lines? Setting up Word’s spelling and grammar checker Turn It In, Grammar Checker, Paper Rater, The OWL Library Search criteria, abstracts Dictionary or Know the purpose for writing…and your audience—more on that soon
APA – Chapter 3 Economy of Expression No jargon, wordiness, redundancy Ex, they were both alike, in close proximity, four different groups, period of time. Acronyms (GM, ATM, PIN, BFF, LOL) Do not use “very” “things” or similar terms What did I do wrong in the above? Precision and Clarity Colloquial expressions: on the other hand, in other words, as such, that is, skin that cat, etc.
Pronouns – he, she, they…be precise with singular or plural Americans—they Consumer—he or she That, those, these, this – be precise Second Person: Never use You or Your in a paper…the bane of APA but is there a solution? Anthropomorphism: A company cannot believe or think, the management of the company can We (you and I) are not doing anything together (you wrote, I read)—again, there is a solution. APA – Chapter 3
YOU---WE---arhhgggg (Pirates?) “This meant that even if someone was acting violently towards preferred spelling is toward you, you just turn the other cheek.” This runs afoul of APA and the use of second person Use he or she—if someone was acting violently, he or she should turn the other cheek—just sounds crappy! How about, if someone was acting violently, the protester(s) should turn the other cheek—sounds better. Often changing you to a generic term for who you are discussing will easily fix the problem—Americans, students, teachers, employees—all of those can take the place of you Same idea with we… “we need to fix America.” Instead, citizens of the United States need to fix America
Verbs – prefer active voice, but passive is acceptable…in moderation The boy was bitten by the dog The dog bit the boy Questions were asked of the class I asked the class questions A survey was constructed The team constructed a survey IF it happened or was said in the past, be sure the language reflects it: Someone said, not says So and so performed, not performs; presented, not presents. Hey, can I use I in an APA paper? APA – Chapter 3
Citations and References Have to match Name to name Title to title Have to be accurate Inaccurate citations or references = plagiarism Look closely at Paper Rater or Turn It In or Grammar Checker or Word It CAN help you!
Citation Reference Actual article “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan - to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations” (Lincoln, 1865, p. 3). Smith, 2008 Smith, S. (2008). Title. Publisher info Actual Article Question—is there anything wrong with the format of Lincoln's quote? Citations and References—WHY?
The more I thought, the more I tended to partially agree that “tests are used not so much to see what the student needs help with but to compel them to do the work that has been assigned” (Kohn, 1999, p. 149). OR The more I thought, the more I tended to partially agree with Kohn (1999), that “tests are used not so much to see what the student needs help with but to compel them to do the work that has been assigned” (p. 149). References Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by rewards. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Citations and References—QUOTE
The more I thought, the more I tended to partially agree that tests are merely a way to make students do homework (Kohn, 1999). OR The more I thought, the more I tended to partially agree with Kohn (1999), that tests are merely a way to make students do homework. References Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by rewards. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Citations and References—Paraphrase
The Writing Process 1. Prewriting (AKA reading and research) 2. Organizing 3. Writing 4. Revising and formatting 5. Proofreading 6. Presentation or publication
The Writing Process 1. Prewriting (AKA reading and research) Purpose of paper—remember, what am I trying to explain Gathering information Thinking Title/Thesis Audience
The Writing Process 2. Organization Outlining Note cards Spider chart Grouping
The Writing Process 3. Writing…vomit on the page! Do not fix mistakes Do not go back and reread every sentence or two Citation (maybe not perfect format but make a note…authors name?)
The Writing Process 4. Revising and formatting Now go back and fix mistakes 5. Proofreading Can you let it sit for a day or two? Read aloud Grammar Checker Word Have a friend proofread 6. Presentation or publication In the case of class—turn it in
Expository Writing In an expository paper, you are explaining something to your audience. Basic concept of an expository paper (presentation) Tell me what you are going to tell me Tell me Tell me what you told me Questions to ask yourself when writing an expository thesis statement: What am I trying to explain? How can I categorize my explanation into different parts? In what order should I present the different parts of my explanation? (Karper, 2002) Often the sequence is simple—look at the chain of events or timeline.
Essay Structure--Intro Introduction Attention grabber Thesis statement (or sentence) Sometimes you can change research question into a statement One scholarly source? Supporting Details (not Main Points yet) Where do I get these? Anything missing? Title? Ever struggle with that?
Essay Structure—Main Points Main Points and Paragraph Structure Short sentences with a main idea (topic sentence). Three to five sentences in a paragraph? Explanation in detail Examples illustrate main idea (charts/graphs) Sum up the main idea and transitions to next paragraph Do the details support the essay thesis?
Essay Structure--Conclusion Conclusion Refers back to thesis Summarizes supporting details Reiterate the significance of the thesis Avoid redundancy Do not introduce new ideas
Essay Structure--Transitions Transition Sentences Close previous paragraph Preview next paragraph or main point Icing on the cake Try to avoid In this paper The first point I will cover In conclusion—though this is not horrible
What about argumentative papers? Yes, there are argumentative papersargumentative Classes like a research class A no kidding research paper where you develop a pro and a con side. Paper defends a position (pro). Your Pro can be an Anti…ummm what? Let the research write the paper Do not approach the paper with a position in mind See what the research indicates and write about it Less struggle, more critical thinking, less work, higher grade
Dissect the Assignment Select a social phenomenon, problem, or issue that you think warrants sociological research. Write a 700 to 1,050- word paper on why the topic needs to be researched, define the problem within that topic, and outline how you would conduct the research, including methods and research design. Why is the method you chose appropriate to this problem? Why are other methods not appropriate? You may choose to support the thesis with previous research using primary research sources. Be sure to include resources that would be helpful in your research.
HIST 2112 ASSIGNMENT: Intolerance and Civil Liberties in WWI Research Question: How did World War I affect the American ideas of tolerance and liberty? Prepare a 1000 word paper discussing the following: In order to unify the country as the United States entered World War I, President Wilson and other government officials used propaganda that promoted patriotism. This propaganda promoted an intolerance of foreigners, immigrants, and those with radical political beliefs. The American people allowed their government to limit civil liberties in the name of national security. In your opinion, how do these actions compare to present day programs such as The PATRIOT Act. Prepare your paper in accordance with APA and include at least three references.
HIST 2111 Write a short paper of approximately 1000 words using MLA or APA formatting and a reference page Use at least 4 references Topic: Was the US Civil War an irrepressible conflict or could it have been avoided?
Dissect the Assignment Many scholars put forward the idea that the results of World War One directly contributed to the outbreak of World War Two in Europe. Write a 700 to 1,050-word paper on the following question: How are the outcomes of World War I connected to the origins of World War II in Europe? Use at least 2 scholarly references Format per APA Notice, main points NOT spelled out Again generic outline ALWAYS looks like this: Introduction Body…main point 1, main point 2, main point 3 Conclusion
Reading for the class and a little research, I come up with the following main points. 1.The Treaty of Versailles placed the blame for WWI on Germany. This meant Germany was totally responsible for the 23 million deaths, the destruction of Europe, and the loss of entire generation of men…a heavy mental burden. 2.Germany was saddled with a 223 billion Reichsmark (or 11.3 billion Pounds) debt for the war and were to pay this back to the Entente countries (France, England, US). In to 2008 dollars, that is $522,576,076,840…over half a trillion dollars! Germany had NO WAY to pay back that amount and it drove the country into an economic melt down. 3.Germany was stripped of much of its territory and the League of Nations was supposed to take over any territory that belongs to Imperial Germany before the war. Dissect the Assignment
Introduction The intro can be made easier by restating the question as one of the opening sentences of the introduction. Start with a hook? From there, I write a sentence about each of the main points and end the intro with a transition sentence that allows me to go from the introduction to the first main point. How are the outcomes of World War I connected to the origins of World War II? World War One (WWI) was a destructive war that devastated Europe for four years, killing over 23 million military and civilian personnel, and destroying large sections of the continent. The results of the war, with its human and financial toll, led directly to the outbreak of World War Two (WWII) only 20 years later.
How are the outcomes of World War I connected to the origins of World War II? World War One (WWI) was a devastating war that tore apart Europe for four years, killing over 23 million military and civilian personnel and destroying large sections of the continent. The results of the war, with its human and financial toll, led directly to the outbreak of World War Two (WWII) only 20 years later. The primary catalyst for events following the end of WWI was the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles laid the blame for the war on Germany alone while also placing the cost of reparations on Germany. In addition, the treaty stripped the country of land and prominence. These punitive measures put Germany on the brink of extinction and made the country ripe for a strong nationalistic leader to bring them out of a financial and moral abyss. The nationalist leader was Adolph Hitler and the result of his rise to power set the stage for an even costlier world war, WWII. Introduction
Now I return to my 3 points and flesh them out. Again, a bit of research then write a paragraph or two on the main points. So, here are a couple paragraphs on blame (Main Point 1). With the enormous human and financial cost of WWI, the drafters of the Treaty of Versailles sought to place the fault for the war squarely on Germany and the German people. This punitive treaty allowed the Entente nations to wash their hands of responsibility for the destruction of the continent and an entire generation of men. Placing the fault for the war made the Entente countries feel better, but it did not make them less culpable in the carnage. What blame for the war did was feed the German idea of Dolchstoßlegend. Main Points
Dolchstoßlegende, literally translated, means Dagger Stab Legend. The War Guilt Clause in the Treaty of Versailles was enormously unpopular in Germany and the Dolchstoßlegende was the accepted antithesis of the War Guilt Clause. The German people, especially WWI veterans, believed the war was not lost militarily but lost due to the betrayal of their political leaders. This idea of political betrayal bolstered the belief in the Dolchstoßlegende and Germany began to look for a scapegoat for the position they found themselves in. (Jackson, 2001). Main Points
This outward gaze for the true cause of the German loss led to assessing blame to other nations, primarily two of the Triple Entente nations, France and England. It also led to the blaming of other communities within Germany, specifically the supposed unpatriotic Jewish community. Though the decay in national standing due to the blame levied by the War Guilt Clause angered the German people, it was not the only issue that moved Germany from the loser in WWI to the aggressor in WWII. (transition) On to point 2
Agenda First some basics Why such a fuss? Tech help—Word, Riverpoint, Plagiarism Checker, Write Point APA Formatting Structure Expository Writing Writing Process Outline Examples
References Karper, Erin. Encore MOO Guide (2nd Ed) Karper, Erin. "Web Usability and Creating an OWL." in The OWL Construction and Maintenance Guide, ed. James A. Inman and Clint Gardner. IWCA Press: Kuwama, E. (2000). memory and the hippocampus. Neuroscience for Kids. Retrieved from New Oxford American Dictionary (2005). Oxford’s American Dictionaries Programs. Retrieved June 16, 2009, from New Oxford American Dictionary. Psycheducation.org. (n.a.). Memory, learning, and emotion: the hippocampus. Retrieved from Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children’s Crusade. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Crusade