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Martin Q. Zhao 2/5/2014.  Intro: Chinese Characters for Numbers  Traditional Chinese Calendar: Lunar or Solar?  Numbers Used in the DaoDe Jing (Tao-Te.

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Presentation on theme: "Martin Q. Zhao 2/5/2014.  Intro: Chinese Characters for Numbers  Traditional Chinese Calendar: Lunar or Solar?  Numbers Used in the DaoDe Jing (Tao-Te."— Presentation transcript:

1 Martin Q. Zhao 2/5/2014

2  Intro: Chinese Characters for Numbers  Traditional Chinese Calendar: Lunar or Solar?  Numbers Used in the DaoDe Jing (Tao-Te Ching)  BaGua: Understanding the Changing World  WuXing: Ancient Systems Theory  Other Phenomena  Q&A

3  一二三四五六七八九十百千万亿兆 Zhuan style 說文小篆 (100 AD) Bronze inscriptions 金文 (1300 BC) Oracle bone script 甲骨文 (1300 BC) Chu style on Slips/Silk 楚系簡帛 (300 BC)

4  A Lunisolar System: it’s both lunar and solar  Every month starts on a new moon day: both new moon and full moon days are observed  New Year=Spring Festival (2 nd new moon after winter solicit)  Mid-Autumn Festival=full moon in the 8 th month  24 Solar terms ( 节气 JieQi) are observed and marked in calendar: essential for agriculture  The first solar term is start of spring ( 立春 LiChun), which falls on Feb 4 (yesterday!) this year.

5 冬至一阳生

6  We need to do some math here:  1 tropical year is 365.25 days  1 synodic month is 29.53 days  12 synodic month is (12 * 29.53 =) 354.37 days  Leap months are used to match up the “lunar” years with “solar” years:  7 leap months are needed every 19 years  There will be two Mid-Autumn Festivals some years! (1976) 7 * 29.53 = 206.7159574 19 * (365.25 – 354.27) = 206.7159574

7  Years and days are tracked using 甲子, the 60(-year) cycle, which combines the two 甲子 The 12 Earthly Branches are used to name 时辰 (2- hour periods) of the day and months. 旬 (10-day period) can be seen as Chinese week to track days–off.

8 六十甲子 六十甲子 (The 60-year Cycle) Horse 天干天干 地支

9 680k -780k BC Peking Man 21k BC prehistoric pottery shards and rice grains pottery rice Longshan Culture 龍山文化 3000 BC Nanzhuangtou Nanzhuangtou culture 南莊頭遺址 8500~ BC forty- seven pieces of pottery pottery

10 Three SovereignsThree Sovereigns ( 三皇 ) 3000?-2700?BC Fu Xi 黃帝 The Yellow Emperor 伏羲, the first of the 三皇 Five EmperorsFive Emperors ( 五帝 ) 2700?-2200?BC 堯 Yao 舜 Shun

11 Xia Dynasty 2200?-1600?BC 春秋 Spring & Autumn Period 772 -481 BC 战国 Warring Kingdoms Period 403-221BC Shang Dynasty 1600?-1046 BC Zhou Dynasty 1046-256 BC

12  Two parts ( 道 and 德 )  81 (37+44) chapters  About 5000 words

13  It has been one of the best known mysteries:  Who he was; when and where he was born.  Three stories according to the Records of Grand Historian by Sima Qian (ca. 145-86 BC):  A contemporary of Confucius (551-479 BC). Li ( 李 ) Er ( 耳 "ear") or Dan ( 聃 "long ear"); or Lao Laizi ( 老莱子 "Old Master")Confucius  The Grand Historian and astrologer Lao Dan ( 老聃 "Old Long-ears"), who lived during the reign (384-362 BC)  As the legend goes, Confucius had met Lao Tzu and asked about rituals from him.

14 Unearthed in 1993

15 Unearthed in 1973

16  “It is a famous puzzle which everyone would like to feel he had solved”  The Tao Te Ching has been translated into Western languages over 250 times  20 or so English translations available at Mercer  It’s hard to translate:  Antiquity(language, grammar, punctuation, context)  Cultural differences  Titles like “Dao of Programming” is second only to those like “HTML Bible”

17 The Tao Name, concept Nothingness, emptiness Existence 10,000 things, objects Subtlety Heaven & earth, the world Beginning The Tao that can be expressed in words is not the true and eternal Tao… (Tao:1) The gate of all mysteries These Two: What are they???

18  Everything in the world has its counterpart  Beautiful  ugly, good  bad, difficult  easy, existence  nothingness, long  short, high  low  Positive  negative electricity, matter  antimatter, particle  void  According to the Dao, there is at once being and nonbeing, which are but different names of the same thing  compliment opposites

19  Based traditions older than the  Primordial BaGua is attributed to 伏羲 (legendary ruler, 3000? BC)  Manifested BaGua is attributed to 周文王 (King Wen of Zhou, 1050 BC) 無極生有極、有極是太極、 太極生兩儀、即陰陽 ; 兩儀生四象 : 即少陰、太陰、少陽、太陽、 四象演八卦、八八六十四卦 From WuJi (the Non-Existence) comes YouJi (the Existence), which is TaiJi. The TaiJi produces two forms, named Yin and Yang. The two forms produce four phenomena, named Lesser Yin, Great Yin (the Moon), Lesser Yang, Great Yang (the Sun). The four phenomena act on the eight trigrams (BaGua), eight eights are sixty-four hexagrams.

20  Used in Taoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts.Taoistcosmology


22  Hexagram 13 is named 同人 (tóng rén), meaning  "Concording People“,  "fellowship with men" and "gathering men".  Its inner trigram is ☲ ( 離 lí) radiance = ( 火 ) fire, and its outer trigram is ☰ ( 乾 qián) force = ( 天 ) heaven. 同人于野,亨。 利涉大川, 利君子貞。 Fellowship with Men in the open. Success. It furthers one to cross the great water. The perseverance of the superior man furthers.

23 Dao begets the One. The One begets the Two. The Two begets the Three. … (Te:42) The Three begets all things in the world.  As the Romans said: “il mondo non è costruita in un giorno”. So how is the world of 10,000 things created according to Dao De Jing? 道生一, 一生二, 二生三, … 三生万物。  What is the next line?  Why does it sound so easy? The One consists of Two in opposition (the Yin and Yang). The Two begets the Three. The Three begets all things in the world.

24  Software system = virtual world  Need to design three types of objects 道生一, 一生二, 二生三, 三生万物。 Tao begets the One; The One consists of Two in opposition (the Yin and Yang); The two begets the Three; All things connote the Yin and Yang. (Te:42) (Cont’d on next slide)

25 Customer SalesRep CustomerForm SalesRepForm OrderFulfillControl OrderControl CustomerEntity OrderEntity ProductEntity System Boundary Actors

26 Thirty spokes share one hub. It is just the space (the Nothingness) between them that makes a cart function as a cart. (Tao:11)

27 The five colors make man blind; The five sounds make man deaf; The five tastes make man lose his sense of taste; Riding and hunting make man wild w/ excitement; Rare goods goad man into stealing. Thus the sage does not satisfy his eyes with colors but satisfies his belly with enough food. He discards the former and takes the latter. (Tao:12) 五色令人目盲; 五音令人耳聋; 五味令人口爽; 驰聘畋猎,令人心发狂; 难得之货,令人行妨。 是以圣人,为腹不为目, 故去彼取此。 Why so many Five’s? Coincident?

28  The "Five Phases" are Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, and Water.WoodFireEarthMetalWater In Oracle bone script 甲骨文 (1300 BC), with one exception.

29 五色土 (dirt in 5 colors from all of China)

30  The xun ( 埙 ) is a globular, vessel flute from China, one of the oldest musical instruments in China and has been in use for approximately seven thousand years. 埙globularvessel flute  Earliest versions no holes.  They can make only five notes. 宮 商 角 徵 羽 /gong/ /shāng/ /jué/ /zh ǐ / /y ǔ / do re mi sol la

31  The ancient Chinese defined, by mathematical means, a gamut or series of Shí-èr-l ǜ (called the 十二律 12 lü) from which various sets of five or seven frequencies were selected to make the sort of "do re mi" major scale familiar to those who have been formed with the Western Standard notation.Shí-èr-l ǜscale Western Standard notation

32 古音十二律史記文字三分損益史記數字西方音名十二平均律 三分損益與 十二平均律 偏差( % ) 黃鐘八寸七分一 81 C - 林鐘五寸十分四 54 G54.06100.11 太簇七寸十分二 72 D72.16280.23 南呂四寸十分八 48 A48.16290.34 姑洗六寸十分四 64 E64.28980.45 應鐘 四寸二分三 分二 42.6667 B42.90830.56 蕤賓 五寸六分三 分二 56.888956.6667 F♯F♯ 57.27570.68 大呂 七寸五分三 分二 75.851975.6667 C♯C♯ 76.45380.79 夷則五寸三分二 50.567950.6667 G♯G♯ 51.02680.90 夾鐘 六寸七分三 分一 67.423967.3333 D♯D♯ 68.11261.01 無射 四寸四分三 分二 44.949244.6667 A♯A♯ 45.45971.12 仲呂 五寸九分三 分二 59.932359.6667F60.68141.23 黃鐘( C ): 81 ; 林鐘( G , derived from 2/3 of 黃鐘 ): 54

33  金木水火土  Why in this order?  It was 木火土金水 in I Ching. Zhuan style 說文小篆 (100 AD) Bronze inscriptions 金文 (1300 BC) Oracle bone script 甲骨文 (1300 BC) Chu style on Slips/Silk 楚系簡帛 (300 BC)

34  金木水火土 are used to name the five planets: 金木水火土



37  Fivefold conceptual scheme used to explain a wide array of phenomena  from cosmic cycles to the interaction between internal organs, andinternal organs  from the succession of political regimes to the properties of medicinal drugs. properties of medicinal drugs


39  The classical Greek elements were concerned with substances or natural qualities  Leading to a tradition of “dissect and analysis” (the white-box approach)  The Chinese xing are "primarily concerned with process and change,“  Leading to a culture emphasizing “balance and harmony” (the systematic and black-box approach.)

40 孔德之容,惟道是從。 道之為物,惟恍惟惚。 惚兮恍兮,其中有象。 恍兮惚兮,其中有物。 窈兮冥兮,其中有精。 其精甚真,其中有信。 The Forms of great Teh (virtue) Exclusively depend on Tao. Tao as a thing Is vague and indefinite. Vague and indefinite, It presents images; Indefinite and vague, It embodies substance. Distance and dark, It embraces semen-like essence. The essence is a genuine existence That can be tested as true. (Dao:21)

41  Attitude matters  Be open-minded  Why is it hard to know? observe 知,不知,上, 不知,知,病。 Knowing one’s ignorance of certain knowledge is the best attitude; Not knowing certain knowledge yet pretend to know is a bad attitude. (De:71) 視之不見,名曰夷; 聽之不闻,名曰希; 搏之不得,名曰微。 That which we look at and cannot see is called plainness (“Yi”). That which we listen to and cannot hear is called rareness (“Xi”). That which we grope for and cannot get is called minuteness (“Wei”). (Dao:14)

42  Since it’s so difficult to define the Dao, so Lao Tzu named it the Great { 强为之名曰大 }  Relationships among the four greats {Dao, Heaven, Earth, King [of men], or simply man) are then shown. 故道大, 天大, 地大, 王亦大. 域中有四大, 而王处一焉. 人法地, 地法 天, 天法道, 道法自然. That is why I say: Tao is Great; Heaven is Great; Earth is Great; and King is also Great. There are four things that are Great [in the universe], of them King (of man) is one. Man takes Earth as its model; Earth takes Heaven as its model; Heaven takes Tao as its model; Tao takes nature as it model. (Tao:25)

43  And then what is Nature?  Can I humbly say that Lao Tzu suggests “It is what it is”?

44  易經 | 說卦 : (I Ching/Explanation) explained the origin of 64 (= 2 6 ) Gua’s: 立天之道曰陰與陽, 立地之道曰柔與剛, 立人之道曰仁與義。 兼三才而兩之, 故易六畫而成卦。易 The Dao of Heaven subscribes Yin and Yang; The Dao of Earth subscribes Supple and Stiffness; The Dao of Earth subscribes Humane and Justice; Draw Two from each of the Three, That’s why it takes 6 strokes for the Gua’s in the Book of Change. (I Ching/Explanation)


46  上下左右前后 (Up, Down, L, R, Front, Back)  6 2-month periods  1 st (yang, 30-day) and 2 nd (yin)  3 rd (yang) and 4 th (yin, 29-day)  And so on

47 七星 (7 Stars)  The Big Dipper  二十八宿 (28=4X7 mansions) Chinese constellations 二十八宿

48  数九 (nine counts of nine)

49 信言不美, 美言不信。 善者不辯, 辯者不善。 知者不博, 博者不知。 聖人不積, 既以為人己愈有, 既以與人己愈多。 天之道,利而不害; 聖人之道,為而不爭。 True words are not embellished, The embellished words are not true. A good man does not quibble; He who quibbles is not good. A man of true learning does not show off his learning; He who shows off his learning does not have true learning. The sage does not store up: Helping others, he is helped even more. Giving to others, he becomes richer still. The Tao of the heaven benefits rather than harms all things; The Tao of the sage is to give rather than rob the people. (Te:81) 9 X 9 = 81


51  The Book of Tao and Teh (Chinese-English), translated by Gu ZhengKun, 2006  Chinese Mystery Culture & Numbers (in Chinese) 114071_85948738.shtml 114071_85948738.shtml  Wu Xing ( 五行 wŭ xíng) on Wikipedia: 五行  Chinese Text Project (with Chinese & English sites),

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