Reading Assessment and Instruction Using Levels of Functioning to Assess Reading and Determine Instructional Expectations
Factors in Deciding How to Teach Reading Student attitude, energy, and motivation Effectiveness of previous approaches Clear diagnostic information of specific reading problems (of the individual) Teacher knowledge of reading strategies Matching appropriate reading program with the student.
Functioning Levels Operationalized for Reading Independent: >98% word recognition + >90% comprehension. Thumbnail: @95% overall Instructional: 95% word rec. and >75% comprehension. Thumbnail: @ 80 - 90% overall Frustration: <90% word rec. and <50% comprehension. Thumbnail:<80 % overall
Hierarchy of Instruction Reading for accuracy Reading for fluency
Strands of Reading Curriculum word attack word recognition reading comprehension
Word Attack Definition Analysis of words Represent discrete oral sounds associated with letters or groups of letters Scope and Sequence Should be developed according to observed needs of the student and/or in relationship to curriculum Major Approaches Phonics Structural Analysis
Performance Measures Isolated sounds - 70 spm @ 98%accuracy Words in a list - 80 wpm @ 98% accuracy Words in text - 100 wpm @ 98% accuracy
Sequence of Fluency Measures Sounds in isolation Saying nonsense words Saying phonetically regular words Oral reading from text Isolated prefixes and suffixes endings, prefixes, & suffixes with nonsense roots Structural analysis of words
Word Attack Levels of Assessment Knowledge Associate letters with sounds Recognize beginnings and endings Application Apply rules for decoding familiar words unfamiliar words
Error Analysis Topology reproduction errors Miscue analysis errors in grammar and/or meaning Specific word attack errors based on what has been taught
Word Recognition Definition: treating a group of letters as a single unit Scope and sequence Curriculum types Developmental Functional Major Approaches Student-specific words in the curriculum Overall fluency
Performance Measures Latency and rate words in isolation Passages in text
Levels of Assessment Associate letters in sequence as words 95% accuracy Do so to automaticity 95% fluency
Reading Comprehension Definition ability to obtain meaning from print. Scope and Sequence Word attack and recognition are important prerequisites Literal, inferential, and critical comprehension Little consensus on what skills to teach and in what sequence
Performance Measures of Reading Comprehension Comprehension is measured indirectly: that is, they are inferential Often measurements of RC are more accurately influenced by Language Cognition/reasoning Memory Literary skills Prior Knowledge
Language Influences on Reading Comprehension To comprehend text requires knowledge of vocabulary (semantics) and grammar (syntax) the student must know what words mean apart and in conjunction with other words language competence of the learner must match the language demands of the text Reading comprehension cannot exceed general language competence.
Cognition/reasoning Influences on Reading Comprehension Prediction/extrapolation prediction requires going beyond information presentedgoing beyond information extrapolationn reqires prediction plus making unstated conclusionsunstated conclusions Higher order skills summarize, analyze, synthesize
Memory Influences on Reading Comprehension Immediate or long term recall/retell Recognition of main ideas or details
Literary Skills Influences on Reading Comprehension Recognition of literary devices satire, irony, sarcasm similes, metaphors Interpretation literary devices poetry
Influence of Prior Knowledge on Reading Comprehension Students can comprehend new material if it covers something they already know New material that covers something unexperienced may be more difficult
CBA Data collection of performance results Display of data Display Based on extant curricula
Guidelines for Measuring Reading Comprehension Measures should match vocabulary and syntax of the material covered Assessments should measure comprehension (not analysis, synthesis, or evaluation) Assessment should measure literal comprehension Assessment should allow the student to see the passages to avoid recall/memory influences Assessment of comprehension should account for prior knowledge pretest or provide relevant background information
Common Performance Measures of Reading Comprehension Sentence verification tests Student retelling Time oral reading Cloze procedures Text comprehension quesitons
Sentence verification tests (Prompted Written Recall) A group of sentences drawn from a passage with changed meaning distractors Student reads and answers (from memory) whether information in sentences was part of the original passage or is the same in meaning. >85% = Independent, 75-85% = Instructional, <65% = Frustration
Student retelling Students read and paraphrase as they go along Students read entire passage and paraphrase at the end Procedures for scoring include Percent total words retold per words in the passage Percent content words retold per content words in the passage
Timed Oral Reading Fluency of reading is highly associated with reading comprehension Measure words read correctly per total words read Correct words per minute See Salvia and Hughes (1990) for detailed procedures
Cloze Procedures Choose a grade level passage of 250 words Provide a 25-word lead-in paragraph/passage for reading sense Delete every 5th word and replace with a blank (@ 15 spaces each) Provide a guided pre-sample for understanding Make the procedure untimed
Cloze Procedures Student reads the passage and says or writes the missing words (spelling not a concern) Exact correct words or close synonyms are accepted >57% = Independent, 44-56% = instructional, <44% = frustration
Answering Text Questions 5 - 10 questions at appropriate reading level Use text explicit and implicit questions >90% = Independent, 75-89% = Instructional, <75% = Frustration
Other Common Reading Assessments Informal Reading Inventories Content Reading Inventories Textual Reading/Study Strategies Observation/Error analysis
A Classroom Informal Reading Inventory (In the Content Area) Pick 20-25 words from 2 grade levels to the present (present to 2 grade levels above for potentially advanced readers) using appropriate subject matter texts. Select passages of 200 -250 words from the same texts. Construct 5 questions for each passage: include recall facts, inferential questions, and vocabulary definitions.
Observation/Error analysis Checklists/Observational Instruments Used to identify specific areas of difficulty Error Analysis Used for identifying common errors to target for instruction
Levels of Assessment Literal, inferential, and critical comprehension require different assessments Beginning students should assessed for literal comprehension Advance students can be assessed for higher levels of comprehension Inferential comprehension requires students to analyze, synthesize and draw conclusions Critical comprehension requires evaluation and judgments of the reading’s worth.
Diagnostic Information Assessment Compare reading proficiency of students in the class with target student Important to determine proficiency on what the student can be expected to do.
Reading Instruction for Secondary Students with Mild Disabilities Strategies and Models
The Reading Process Motivational Analysis Vocabulary Development Word Recognition, Word Knowledge (Definition) Teaching Comprehension Strategic Reading Strategic Teaching
Motivational Analysis Identify why student needs to read in your content area Identify why student will read in your content area Identify how student is convinced to read in your content area (primary and secondary reinforcers) Attach reinforcers to reading activities
Word Recognition (for highly deficient readers) Identifying words use of computer assisted instruction or flashcards Word ID strategies (e.g., DISSECT) Use word banks with motivational inventories (token reinforcement)
Word Knowledge (Definition) Concept diagramming (mapping) Computer-generated maps (e.g., Inspiration)Inspiration Finding synonyms, Contextual analysis Using Reference Sources Morphemic Analysis Understand the parts, understand the word
Strategic Reading Study Strategies Analyze sections of the text Comprehension Strategies RAP Read the paragraph Ask yourself what the paragraph is about Put the main idea and two details in your own words.
Strategic Teaching Reciprocal Teaching Direct Instruction Adaptation Analysis
Direct Instruction Structure the learning climate into predictable activities that provide a high level of teacher-student, and student- student interaction make efficient use of learned strategies Teacher behaviors include questioning paraphrasing visual imagery
Adaptation Analysis Options Reduce the expected amount of learning Match textbooks to learning abilities Enhance content through study guides Provide technology accommodations promote use of appropriate learning strategies
Writing samples 10 minute probes Story starters (pictures) Calculate the words written and correct words written correct = spelled correctly and appropriate mechanics Determine % accuracy of writing sample. Determine most appropriate writing goal
Writing Sample 1: Picture of a flying saucer circling a small town a green space man comes to boise. he kill boys and girls. there moms and dads are sad.
Writing Sample 2: Picture of a party its a party and my friends come to my house. we dance and Ill have lotsa fun.
Sample 3: Picture of skier with child my skisut is red. I go fast on hills. my sisters ski with me. its to cold to ski for a long time.
Reading Comprehension Sample 1 In reading “Mary had a Little Lamb” What do you think the teacher would say if Mary brought the lamb a second day?
Reading Comprehension Sample 2 In reading “Mary had a Little Lamb” How do you think Mary felt about her day at school?