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Bloom's Revised Taxonomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Bloom's Revised Taxonomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

2 Original Terms New Terms
Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)

3 Bloom’s taxonomy

4 Lower and Higher Order Questions
Lower level questions are those at the remembering, understanding and lower level application levels of the taxonomy. Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate for: Evaluating students’ preparation and comprehension Diagnosing students’ strengths and weaknesses Reviewing and/or summarising content

5 Lower and Higher Order Questions
Higher level questions are those requiring complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills. Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually most appropriate for: Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically Problem solving Encouraging discussions Stimulating students to seek information on their own

6 Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. Recognising Listing Describing Identifying Retrieving Naming Locating Finding   Can you recall information?

7 Recall or recognition of specific information
Remembering cont’ List Memorise Relate Show Locate Distinguish Give example Reproduce Quote Repeat Label Recall Know Group Read Write Outline Listen Group Choose Recite Review Quote Record Match Select Underline Cite Sort Recall or recognition of specific information Products include: Quiz Definition Fact Worksheet Test Label List Workbook Reproduction Vocabulary

8 Remembering: Potential Activities and Products
Make a list of the main events of the story. Make a time line of events. Make a facts chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. What animals were in the story? Make a chart showing… Make an acrostic. Recite a poem.

9 Understanding The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. Interpreting Exemplifying Summarising Inferring Paraphrasing Classifying Comparing Explaining   Can you explain ideas or concepts?

10 Understanding of given information
Understanding cont’ Restate Identify Discuss Retell Research Annotate Translate Give examples of Paraphrase Reorganise Associate Describe Report Recognise Review Observe Outline Account for Interpret Give main idea Estimate Define Understanding of given information Products include: Recitation Summary Collection Explanation Show and tell Example Quiz List Label Outline

11 Understanding: Potential Activities and Products
Cut out, or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story. Retell the story in your own words. Write a summary report of the event Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a colouring book. Cut out, or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea was.

12 Applying Implementing Carrying out Using Executing
 The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. Implementing Carrying out Using Executing  Can you use the information in another familiar situation?

13 Using strategies, concepts, principles and theories in new situations
Applying cont’ Translate Manipulate Exhibit Illustrate Calculate Interpret Make Practice Apply Operate Interview Paint Change Compute Sequence Show Solve Collect Demonstrate Dramatise Construct Use Adapt Draw Using strategies, concepts, principles and theories in new situations Products include: Photograph Illustration Simulation Sculpture Demonstration Presentation Interview Performance Diary Journal

14 Applying: Potential Activities and Products
Construct a model to demonstrate how it works Make a diorama to illustrate an event Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Make a papier-mache map / clay model to include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic. Write a textbook about this topic for others. Dress a doll in national costume. Make a clay model… Paint a mural using the same materials. Design a marketing strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model.

15 Analysing The learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. Comparing Organising Deconstructing Attributing Outlining Finding Structuring Integrating Can you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?

16 Breaking information down into its component elements
Analysing cont’ Compare Contrast Survey Detect Group Order Sequence Test Debate Analyse Diagram Relate Dissect Categorise Discriminate Distinguish Question Appraise Experiment Inspect Examine Probe Separate Inquire Arrange Investigate Sift Research Calculate Criticize Breaking information down into its component elements Products include: Graph Spreadsheet Checklist Chart Outline Survey Database Mobile Abstract Report

17 Analysing: Potential Activities and Products
Design a questionnaire to gather information. Write a commercial to sell a new product Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a family tree showing relationships. Devise a play about the study area. Write a biography of a person studied. Prepare a report about the area of study. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.

18 Evaluating Can you justify a decision or course of action?
The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. Checking Hypothesising Critiquing Experimenting Judging Testing Detecting Monitoring   Can you justify a decision or course of action?

19 Evaluating cont’ Judge Rate Validate Predict Assess Score Revise Infer
Determine Prioritise Tell why Compare Evaluate Defend Select Measure Choose Conclude Deduce Debate Justify Recommend Discriminate Appraise Value Probe Argue Decide Criticise Rank Reject Judging the value of ideas, materials and methods by developing and applying standards and criteria. Products include: Debate Panel Report Evaluation Investigation Verdict Conclusion Persuasive speech

20 Evaluating: Potential Activities and Products
Prepare a list of criteria to judge… Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest. Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others. Form a panel to discuss views. Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed. Write a half-yearly report. Prepare a case to present your view about...

21 Creating The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. Designing Constructing Planning Producing Inventing Devising Making  Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?

22 Creating cont’ Formulate Improve Act Predict Produce Blend Set up
Compose Assemble Organise Invent Compile Forecast Devise Propose Construct Plan Prepare Develop Originate Imagine Generate Formulate Improve Act Predict Produce Blend Set up Devise Concoct Compile Putting together ideas or elements to develop a original idea or engage in creative thinking. Products include: Film Story Project Plan New game Song Newspaper Media product Advertisement Painting

23 Creating: Potential Activities and Products
Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building to house your study. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write about your feelings in relation to... Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about.. Design a record, book or magazine cover for... Sell an idea Devise a way to... Make up a new language and use it in an example.

24 A good teacher makes you think even when you don’t want to.
(Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking)

25 Blooming Questions Questioning should be used purposefully to achieve well-defines goals. Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of thinking organised by level of complexity. It gives teachers and students an opportunity to learn and practice a range of thinking and provides a simple structure for many different kinds of questions and thinking. The taxonomy involves all categories of questions. Typically a teacher would vary the level of questions within a single lesson.

26 Questions for Remembering
What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...? Can you name ...? Find the meaning of… Describe what happened after… Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 12)

27 Questions for Understanding
Can you write in your own words? How would you explain…? Can you write a brief outline...? What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Can you clarify…? Can you illustrate…? Does everyone act in the way that …….. does? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 12)

28 Questions for Applying
Do you know of another instance where…? Can you group by characteristics such as…? Which factors would you change if…? What questions would you ask of…? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13)

29 Question for Analysing
Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Can you explain what must have happened when...? What are some or the problems of...? Can you distinguish between...? What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the problem with...? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13)

30 Questions for Evaluating
Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Can you defend your position about...? Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to.. would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..? How effective are. ..? What are the consequences..? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is ....of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose?  (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14)

31 Questions for Creating
Can you design a...to...? Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Why don't you devise your own way to...? What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...? Can you create new and unusual uses for...? Can you develop a proposal which would...? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14)

32 He who learns but does not think is lost
(Chinese Proverb)

33 S

34 Source-based assessment questions and tasks
Cognitive levels and abilities covered during formal assessment Formal assessments must cater for a range of cognitive levels and abilities of learners, as shown below: Cognitive Levels Source-based assessment questions and tasks LEVEL 1 (L1) •Extract evidence from sources LEVEL 2 (L2) •Explain historical concepts •Straightforward interpretation of the sources •What is being said by the author or creator of the source? What are the views or opinions on an issue expressed by a source? •Compare information in sources LEVEL 3 •Interpret and evaluate information and data from sources •Engage with questions of bias, reliability and usefulness of sources •Compare and contrast interpretations and perspectives within sources and by authors of sources

35 SUGGESTIONS FOR SETTING TEST/EXAM PAPER
Make sure that you know exactly what your CAPS document expects from you regarding the cognitive levels. Create a background for yourself regarding this cognitive level eg. English Business and Consumer Studies Life/Physical Studies Level 1 and 2 = 40% Lower order 30% [Recall] 65% [Know 40% and understand 25%] Level 3 = 40% Middle order 50% [Apply/Analyse] 20% [Apply} Level 4 and 5 = 20% Higher order 20% [Evaluate/create/Synthesise] 15 % [Evaluate] Now write down all the questions that you would normally want to ask 4. After you have all your questions, start to apply the cognitive level. How? Change the verb that you used I.e. Who is the poet of the poem? Change now to: Identify the poet.

36 Remember that EVERY QUESTION needs to adhere to the breakdown,
cognitive levels is not applied only at the end of the exam paper! I.e. if your exam paper consists out of 70 marks the cognitive levels applied need to look like this: Question 1: 30 Marks Level 1 and 2 = 12 Marks Level = 12 Marks Level 4 and 5 = 6 Marks Question 2: 10 Marks Level 1 and 2 = 4 Marks Level = 4 Marks Level 4 and 5 = 2 Marks etc How do work out mark allocation? Total mark for question * 40 [depending on level and your distribution]/100 = 12 Marks Check that you did not use too many “W” questions As far as possible try to structure the format of your questions from level 1 to level 3/4 i.e. from lower order to higher order, from 1 mark questions to more marks. When using passages and scenarios ensure that they are not more than 2 years old.

37 Make sure that your exam/test paper adheres to the following principles of
assessment Is the assessment/test VALID? Are you testing what you are supposed to test? Is the test/exam CURRENT? Are you testing what needs to be tested at this stage? Is the test/exam APPROPRIATE for the level you are testing? Is the test/exam suitable for what is being tested? Is the test/exam AUTHENTIC? Will the evidence provided by the learners be their own work? Is the test/exam FAIR? Is it a fair test for a Gr.10 or is it too difficult? Is the test/exam SUFFICIENT? Will there be enough evidence from learners to indicate that they understand the work? Provide a cognitive analysis grid from Question 1 to … where you clearly indicate the level as well as the mark allocation. Levels may be added to the memorandum as well. 13. EDIT,EDIT,EDIT – Make sure there are no language and grammar errors.

38 PRETORIA WEST HIGH SCHOOL
EXAMPLE OF A TEST/EXAM QUESTION PAPER PRETORIA WEST HIGH SCHOOL HISTORY TEST 1 GRADE : DATE : 15 May 2013 MARKS : DURATION : 2 HOURS EXAMINER: Mr. V.Padyachy MODERATOR: Mr.D.Chetty INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 1. This Test consist of ONE question based on THE EFFECT OF THE PASS LAWS ON SOUTH AFRICANS IN THE 1950ѕ? 2. You are required to answer ALL questions. 3. Answer both the Source-based which counts 50 marks and extended writing which counts 50 marks. 4. You are required to demonstrate application of knowledge, skills and insight in the answering of questions. 5. Number the questions correctly and according to the numbering system used in this paper. 6. Write neatly and legibly.

39 QUESTION 1 : WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF THE PASS LAWS ON
SOUTH AFRICANS IN THE 1950ѕ? Use Sources 5A, 5B and 5C to answer the following questions: 1.1 Using Source 5A and your own knowledge. (a) What message does the photographer want to convey regarding the oppression of black South Africans during apartheid in the 1950s? (2 x 2) {4} [Interpretation and extraction of evidence from Source 5A – L1] (b) How do you think black South Africans would have reacted when they viewed this photograph? (2 x 2) {4} [Interpretation of evidence from Source 5A - L2]  1.2 Refer to Source 5B. (a) What does the extract tell us about the attitude of the prison authorities in the 1950s? (2 x 2) {4} [Interpretation of evidence from Source 5B –L2]

40 [Extraction of evidence from Source 5B - L2]
Explain your answer using evidence from the source. (2 x 2) {4} [Extraction of evidence from Source 5B - L2] 1.3 Study Source 5C (a) Why was Motsoaledi arrested? (1 x 2) {2} [Extraction of evidence from Source 5C – L1] (b) Why was Motsoaledi without his pass at the time of his arrest? (2 x 2) {4}  [Interpreting evidence from Source 5C – L2]  (c) Give reasons why Motsoaledi could not spell his name. (2 x 2) {4] [Interpreting evidence from Source 5C – L2]

41 [Analysis and evaluation from Source 5A, 5B and 5C –L3]
1.4 Consult Sources 5A, 5B and 5C. In your opinion, do you think that pass law offenders should have been regarded as criminals? Give a reason for your answer. (2 x 2) {4} [Analysis and evaluation from Source 5A, 5B and 5C –L3] (b) Quoting evidence from the sources, explain how pass law offenders were treated. (2 x 2) {4} [Interpretation and analysis of evidence from Sources 5A, 5B and 5C –L4] 1.5 Using the information from Sources 5B and 5C, explain the similarities in these sources regarding police brutality against black South Africans (2 x 2) {4} [Interpretation and analysis of evidence from Sources 5B and 5C –L4] 1.6 Using the information from all the sources and your own knowledge, write a paragraph of about 12 lines (about 120 words) on the impact of the pass laws on the lives of the people in South Africa (10) [Synthesis, Interpretation and analysis of evidence from all the sources and communication L4]

42 ESSAY Racism is world wide spread, but in South Africa racism became entrenched through numerous apartheid laws. Explain how apartheid was established (instituted) in South Africa between 1948 and (50) (100)

43 Source-based assessment questions and tasks
Cognitive levels and abilities covered during formal assessment  Formal assessments must cater for a range of cognitive levels and abilities of learners, as shown below: Cognitive Levels Source-based assessment questions and tasks LEVEL 1 (L1) •Extract evidence from sources LEVEL 2 (L2) •Explain historical concepts •Straightforward interpretation of the sources •What is being said by the author or creator of the source? What are the views or opinions on an issue expressed by a source? •Compare information in sources LEVEL 3 •Interpret and evaluate information and data from sources •Engage with questions of bias, reliability and usefulness of sources •Compare and contrast interpretations and perspectives within sources and by authors of sources

44 The weighting of the cognitive levels across the different grades
40% 20% Grade 11 30% 50% Grade 12

45 Moderation of Assessment
Moderation ensures that the assessment tasks are fair, valid and reliable. Moderation should be implemented at school, district, provincial and national levels. Comprehensive and appropriate moderation practices must be in place for the quality assurance of all subject assessments.  Moderation in history  Moderators should pay particular attention to the instructions for tasks and projects, as well as to the wording of questions in examinations, and they should ask: Is it absolutely clear what learners are expected to do? Can it be explained better? Is there further information that will assist learners to complete the tasks or questions? They should also insist that references are provided for all sources used. The table for the Global Assessment of Essays, which is provided for Grade 12 examinations, should be adapted and used for the marking of all written work and projects in all three grades, whenever possible. If rubrics are used, teachers should ask: Is it necessary to use a rubric, as many tasks and projects can be marked better using a marking scheme? If a rubric is necessary, does it adequately measure the achievement of the task or project?

46 Moderators should ensure that assessment tasks and projects comply with the following:
• They include information about where and how learners are realistically expected to find information • They warn learners to avoid plagiarism; and • They provide instructions for how references are to be written


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