Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Ruben & Stewart (2006). Message Production Every aspect of our behavior (language, tone of voice, appearance, eye contact, actions, use of space."— Presentation transcript:
Message Production Every aspect of our behavior (language, tone of voice, appearance, eye contact, actions, use of space & time) is a potential source of information for others to select, interpret, remember, and act upon.
Encoding/Decoding Encoding converts an idea into a message and decoding translates the message back into an idea. (This occurs in the left hemisphere of the brain in Wernicke’s Area.)
Process Vs. Meaning Process models were covered in Chapter 3 and include such elements as “source,” “message,” “channel,” “receiver,” “feedback,” etc.. Meaning-centered models focus on how meaning is created through the interpretation of signs and symbols.
Language Every language has a set of rules relative to: – Phonology: how to combine sounds. – Syntax: how to combine words. – Semantics: the meanings of words. – Pragmatics: how language is actually used.
Physiology Breath from the lungs passes over vocal cords causing vibration. As vocal cords tighten or loosen, pitch rises and falls respectively. The position of the tongue, lips, and jaw are primary factors in the creation of vowel sounds in English.
Cognition Wernicke’s Area: Located in the left hemisphere of the brain, it is responsible for translating ideas and emotions into the appropriate auditory patterns needed for expression. Broca’s Area: Also located in the left hemisphere of the brain, it activates electrical impulses needed to mobilize voice-producing mechanisms and to create vocalization.
Acquisition Opinions vary on how we first develop language competency, but most agree that interaction between individuals is essential to linguistic competence. Without the opportunity to talk with others, no language capability develops.
Acquisition Psycholinguistics: Early utterances are based on a child’s personalized understanding of the world. Language is a means for the expression of meanings he or she has learned. Sociolinguistics: Language development occurs when a child experiences a need to communicate. Language is learned through social interaction.
Stages 4 mos. – coos and chuckles 6-9 mos. – babble (e.g. gagagagagaga) 12-18 mos. – yes/no and a few other words 18-21 mos. – most basic sentences 24-27 mos. – short sentences 30-33 mos. – four word sentences 36-39 mos. – well-formed sentences and some grammar.
Everyday Uses Representation – Language enables us to name and symbolically represent elements in our world that are both concrete (e.g. book, reading, friend) and abstract (e.g. friendship, love, justice).
Sapir-Whorf The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis observes that language is “not merely a reproducing instrument for voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas… We dissect nature along the lines laid down by our native language.”
General Semantics Principle of Nonidentity (A is not A): The world is constantly changing, while language may not. Also, sometimes language changes when reality does not.
General Semantics Principle of Non-Allness (A is not all A): Language can never represent all of the object/event/person we are referring to.
General Semantics Principle of Self-Reflexiveness: When we use language to talk about our use of language, we become increasingly abstract.
General Semantics “The map is not the territiory.” -Alfred Korzybski