Presentation on theme: "Get Back to Your Roots! Intentional Word Study with Greek and Latin Roots Tiffany Rose & Cheryl Harrel WABE Conference, Yakima, WA April 19, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Get Back to Your Roots! Intentional Word Study with Greek and Latin Roots Tiffany Rose & Cheryl Harrel WABE Conference, Yakima, WA April 19, 2013
Rationale English language has 1,200,000 – 2,000,000 words! Estimated that technology is contributing 20,000 new words a year 90% of English words with more than 1 syllable are Latin based Most of remaining 10% are Greek based Single root can help us understand 5-20 related English words
Rationale, cont. Reading Comprehension “ Decades of research have consistently found a deep connection between vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and academic success…vocabulary [is] a bridge between the word level processes of phonics and the cognitive processes of comprehension” (Rasinsky, et al, 2008, p. 15).
Five Common Misconceptions Misconception 1: Definitions do the trick Misconception 2: Weekly vocabulary lists are effective Misconception 3: Teachers should teach all hard words, especially those printed in bold or italics. Misconception 4: The study of Latin and Greek roots is too hard for young learners Misconception 5: Word learning can't be fun.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate. (CCSS L4) Common Core State Standards
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use L.3.4. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion). L.4.4. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). L.6.4. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible). L.7.4. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). L Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (CCSS L5) Common Core State Standards
Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression. (CCSS L6) Common Core State Standards
The earliest Greek civilizations lived around 3,000+ years ago. Some historians put the earliest dates of Greek society around the time of the first Olympic games – 776 B.C. Others extend the beginning to circa years B.C. A Little Bit of History…
GREEK INFLUENCE The Greeks loved philosophy and art, were interested in science and medicine, and were deep thinkers who loved to discuss politics. English absorbed words from ancient Greek for these intellectual subjects.
Historical side note on Greek influence… The probable origin of the caduceus to symbolize the medical profession…
The Roman Influence… The Roman Empire circa 44 B.C. … lasted until circa 1453 A.D. A Little Bit More History…
Romans, who spoke Latin, came from Rome (now Italy). Romans conquered and controlled all of these lands for hundreds of years.
Those who have the power determine the language. The people of the conquered lands had to learn many Latin words to be able to communicate with the people who ruled over them. Latin became the language of religion, medicine, business, and law.
Kinds of Roots Base root words Affixes Prefixes Suffixes
Roots bases affixes prefixes suffixes
Parallel Latin and Greek Roots Parallel Latin & Greek bases Definition water foot, feet earth Latin aqua- ped- terr- Greek hydro – pod – geo -
Broadening the Cognate Approach English Innovative Spanish Inovador nov Nuevo Nueva Novice Novelty Renovate
Base Root “vis/vid” examples as base roots – vis/vid are not words by themselves, but they are roots that mean “see”. Experience the Consensus Board!
Some examples… A visionary sees ahead to how the project could unfold. A visor protects your eyes from the sun. The vivid colors were so bright, we could see them clearly from far away. Readers with a good imagination visualize the action or setting of the story. Because it was so foggy, the visibility was very poor. It is so fun to watch YouTube videos of the screaming goats! The girl felt invisible as she started her first day at the new high school.
Prefixes Prefixes – give direction, negate, or intensify Most English prefixes derived from Latin (about 25) The four most frequent prefixes account for 97 percent of prefixed words in printed school English… dis-, re-, un-, & in-, im-, il-, ir-
Parallel Latin and Greek Roots Parallel Latin and Greek prefixes Definition against around many over under, below Latin contra-, contro-, circu-, circum- multi- super-, sur- sub- Greek anti – peri – poly – hyper – hypo -
Directional Prefixes Most of the prefixes students encounter in school texts are directional in nature. Examples: at-, ad- = to, toward, add to de - = down, off dis - = apart, in different directions con- = with, together re - = again
Suffixes Least important component in terms of understanding a word’s meaning Usually used to indicate a part of speech Only a few suffixes merit intensive scrutiny - ology = “study of” -er = “more” -est = “most” -ful = “full of” -less = “without, lacking” -able, -ible = “can, able to”
Word Spokes Activity
Instructional Routine minutes, 3 – 5 times per week Routine – allows focus on content with a predictable set of activities, that minimizes time spent on directions or procedures
And if you’re into Marzano… The first three steps are to assist the teacher in direct instruction. 1. Describe 2. Restate 3. Draw/Sketch The last three steps are to provide the learner practice and reinforcement 4. Engage 5. Discuss 6. Games
Divide and Conquer Word dissection – helps students see the root in the context of words so they can learn how to identify it and use its meaning to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word Focus on new root and connect to familiar Scaffold conversation through examples you provide “Struct” activity
Activity Construct Construction Obstruct Deconstruct Infrastructure Reconstruct (Latin base stru, struct; prefixes con-, de-, infra-, ob-, re-, )
Word Suffix DefinitionRoot DefinitionPrefix Definition Other words with this prefix Other words with this root Other words with this suffix Prefix: Root:Suffix:
Extend & Explore Students practice with game-like activities Word Theater (charades) Odd Word Out Wordo (like Bingo) Scattergories Rummy Roots
Word Sort Activity Structure Construct Construction Obstruct Deconstruct Infrastructure Reconstruct Instructor Instruction Instruct Reconstructionist
Getting Started Early elementary – start with compound words and show how they can be broken apart Then add negating words with prefixes (un-, in-) Then add directional words with prefixes (pre-, re-) Then add easy suffixes (-er, -est, -able) Bases
Considering what we have discussed today, what routines might you establish in your classroom, even as you go back to your classes next week? Final Thoughts
References Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2013). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction (2 nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guildford Press Honig, B., Diamond, L., and Gutlohn, L. (2000). Teaching Reading Sourcebook: For Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade (Core Literacy Training Series). Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications Marzano, R. J. (2010). Teaching basic and advanced vocabulary: A framework for direct instruction. Boston, MA: Heinle Cengage Learning Overturf, B. J., Montgomery, L. H., Smith, M. H., (2013). Word nerds. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishing Padak, N., Bromley, K., Rasinski, T. V., & Newton, E. (2012). Vocabulary: Five common misconceptions. Educational Leadership, 69. Retrieved from Misconceptions.aspx#figure1http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational- Misconceptions.aspx#figure1 Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N., Newton, J., Newton, E. (2011). The Latin-Greek connection: Building vocabulary through morphological study. The Reading Teacher, 65 (2), Rasinsky, T., Padak, N., Newton, R. M., & Newton, E. (2008). Greek and Latin roots: Keys to building vocabulary. Hunington Beach, CA: Shell Educational Publishing