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P LAY T HERAPY Children and Psychological Treatments.

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1 P LAY T HERAPY Children and Psychological Treatments

2 I NTRODUCTION Read the article titled ‘ Helping Children Draw out their Traumas ’ as an introduction into the lesson on children and psychology – behaviour and cognition treatments

3 L EARNING G OALS : I can explain differences in treatments within psychology for children vs. adults I know the use and application of play therapy as a form of treatment within psychology I can understand the advantages and disadvantages of play therapy techniques I can analyze art therapy as a form of play therapy using specific criteria

4 D ISCUSSION Q UESTIONS : Why do you think it is necessary to tailor psychological/cognitive treatments for children? What kinds of trauma might a child go through that will cause them anxiety, grief, aggression or other maladaptive behaviours? What techniques do you think a psychologist/behaviourist/therapist could employ to try to understand the child’s feelings and ease the trauma they may have suffered?

5 W HAT IS P LAY T HERAPY ? Play therapy is beneficial to any child who is experiencing difficulties in the home, school or community It is one therapeutic method through which a child can effectively deal with their problems Uses child’s natural medium of self expression Child can ‘play out’ his/her feelings and problems Develop a relationship with child Assists child with overall development Ensures a place of safety and respect

6 P LAY T HERAPY CAN BE D IRECTIVE OR N ON -D IRECTIVE Non-Directive : also called client-centered and unstructured play therapy Examines cognitive behaviour and developmental stages – broad, general development of child Directive : Is child centered, psychoanalytic – situation specific, highly guided and structured Guided by the notion that using directives to guide the child through play will cause a faster change than is generated by nondirective play therapy The therapist plays a much bigger role in directive play therapy

7 A PPLICATIONS OF P LAY T HERAPY T ECHNIQUES How can the following institutions or situations employ aspects of play therapy? Families Hospitals Cognitive Behaviour Treatments Language Development Grief/Loss Anxiety Child with Autism

8 T YPES OF P LAY Therapeutic Story Telling : - often use puppets, sandbox, or other props to create stories/metaphors Art Therapy : - designed to utilize non-verbal communication to prompt discussion or identification of issues – can stimulate conscious and unconscious thoughts/memories Play Therapy - Toys, Games, Crafts, Music: drama/dress-up, doll house/family figures – act out roles and situations based on experiences

9 A RTICLE : Using Drawing as Intervention with Traumatized Children Cathy A. Malchiodi, ATR, LPAT, LPCC How do you know if this article is credible and academic? What is the overview of this article? (abstract) Let’s dissect the important information from the article…

10 A RTICLE : U SING D RAWING AS I NTERVENTION WITH T RAUMATIZED C HILDREN Introduction : Drawing is a form of communication that appeals to children Way to express feelings/thoughts in a manner that is less threatening than strictly verbal means Helps to externalize emotions and events too painful to speak out loud Is one of the only means of conveying the complexities of painful experiences, repressed memories, or unspoken fears, anxieties, or guilt

11 A RTICLE : U SING D RAWING AS I NTERVENTION WITH T RAUMATIZED C HILDREN Drawings: A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Psychologists, educators, and others have tried to determine whether or not children’s drawings reveal their thoughts, feelings, and psychological well-being What do you think are some advantages of art/play therapy? What could be some difficulties of using aspects of play therapy in assessing children’s actions, emotions, and cognition?

12 A RTICLE : U SING D RAWING AS I NTERVENTION WITH T RAUMATIZED C HILDREN Drawings as Intervention: Drawing has become a recognized form of therapy with children and has been used in the treatment of children who have been physically or sexually abused or exposed to domestic violence, have emotional disorders, or have medical conditions Children’s art could be used as means of communication between therapist and child and believed that his young patients wanted to be active participants in their treatment. The value of drawing in helping children express their problems and world-views - drawings can be a catalyst for increased interaction and interchange, thus expanding the effectiveness and depth of the relationship between clinician and child.

13 A RTICLE : U SING D RAWING AS I NTERVENTION WITH T RAUMATIZED C HILDREN Working with Physically or Sexually Abused Children Case Example: TESSA A six year old girl, Tessa, who was suspected of sexual abuse was referred for an evaluation. The protective service worker who initially handled her intake observed that Tessa was verbally communicative, but hesitant to discuss who in her household may have abused her. Like many children who have been sexually maltreated, Tessa was guarded about the details of her abuse and found it difficult to talk about openly.

14 C ASE E XAMPLE : TESSA Here is an example of Tessa’s picture: What stands out to you in this picture? How did the therapist find out what was happening to Tessa?

15 A RTICLE : U SING D RAWING AS I NTERVENTION WITH T RAUMATIZED C HILDREN Specific Drawing Tasks for Trauma Debriefing and Intervention: It is important to accept that children who have been traumatized do need and want to relate the terror of their experiences. For many years it was believed that children should not be asked to talk about these traumatic memories for fear of re-traumatization. However, it is now known that it is important to the recovery process to provide children with ways to express their apprehension and worries and to provide sensory experiences that mobilize the expression of these feelings in a structured manner.

16 T YPES OF D RAWING T ASKS : 1. Drawing “What Happened” 2. Drawing of Self in Relation to Trauma Experience 3. Drawing of the Body of the Victim 4. Completing a Pre-structured “Body Outline”

17 A RTICLE : U SING D RAWING AS I NTERVENTION WITH T RAUMATIZED C HILDREN Overall Considerations:. a simple drawing can be helpful in communicating feelings and experiences and that putting these images on paper will assist the child in overcoming painful emotions and memories it is important that the clinician be as curious as possible about all elements of the drawing. Asking about everything in a drawing demonstrates to the child that you are interested in his or her creation questions will mobilize new information to surface and clarify for you what the child intended to express in the drawing ask the child about what is not included in the drawing drawing is not a panacea for trauma; drawing interventions will only be helpful if the therapist understands how to sensitively ask about the child’s experiences before using any drawing intervention the therapist or counselor should personally try the task and experience what it is like to use the activity

18 P LAY T HERAPY AS A C AREER Canadian Association for Child and Play Therapy rtificate rtificate

19 A RT T HERAPY AS A C AREER CATA – Canadian Art Therapy Association Toronto Art Therapy Institute

20 P LAY T HERAPY A CTIVITY – Y OUR T URN Success Criteria: Read the article titled ‘ Analysis of Children’s Drawings ’ From the information in the article, copy out the meanings and symbols the author talks about as being important to analyzing children’s drawings (i.e. tears…) Use the supplies provided (paper and pencils) to create a drawing based on the symbols and meanings from the article. (Use Tessa’s drawing as an example) Your drawing should be reminiscent of a child’s work – try to create a drawing that would represent a traumatic event in a child’s life. You will share your with a small group and they will try to interpret/analyze what the drawing is trying to convey by asking probing questions about your work


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