2Define society and explain what sociologists view as a society Unit 1: Towards an introduction to the study of society: The awakening of the sociological imagination 1Objectives:Define society and explain what sociologists view as a societyExplain and be able to use a sociological perspectiveExplain the sociological imagination
8Society:Society = a group of people who shape their lives in aggregated and patterned ways that distinguish their group from other groups
9What does society look like? The study of societySociety as an object itself (sui generis)if society is an object, than it can be examined closely and analyzed like any other subject (sounds simple isn’t it? We divide it in pieces and explore each piece carefully)A sociologist does to society, what a biologist does to a living organism, or a geologist does to a rock:Society becomes something scientifically weighted, measured and dissectedCan you see society? Really see it? If you can, can yiu describe it? What does it look like? Sound like, taste like or feel like? These are difficult questions to answer
11Is Society a concrete object after all? But, wait…as we begin to dissect this object, we discover that it’s made up of countless other componentsOf things like: culture, working class, ethnicityThese things appear to be sui generis (objects on their own) as well: more phenomena to examine by themselves, hmmm, but wait….And these components can be broken down even further into seemly endless bits and piecesIt gets confusing: daunting, almost impossible to imagine we could analyze something so big, with so many parts, the shapes and boundaries are so fluid
13Or more like this:Relationships between individuals in a society (social networks)
14What can we see?If we can’t see the whole of society, what can we see?We can see people living their lives, interacting with each other, working, playing, eating, dancing, flirting, lying, fighting, grieving, driving in their cars, ending their lives by own choice, partying, getting married, divorcing, stealing, loosing their minds…..etcThere are limitless observable phenomena for us to analyze sociologicallyIn fact they are all happening around us right now, every moment of every lifeScoping social phenomena
15E. g. Addiction to alcohol E.g. Addiction to alcohol?: Mad Men and alcoholism [Sociology of Mad Men]As a sociologist you start wondering what happened in episode 3?
17This is what society looks like: People actively and collectively shape their lives, organizing their social interactions and relationships to produce a real meaningful world: and they do this in patterned ways that (we as) social scientists can analyze.We are curious to analyze the social processes that everyone experiences and how those social processes create the larger society of which we are all a part of
19E.g. The sociology of partying and its possible secondary effects First shy, drink alcohol, dance, dance, kiss, kiss some more, with the guy, ‘what’s his name again?’ and yeah, let’s go his place…The sun shines, headache, OH NO! a one night stand, with this guy?(Tierra traga me)
20E.g. the sociology of first loves / You can not eat nor think clearly, or do anything else, you just think about that person, you want to be with that person, you want to do everything for them, you don’t care if they don’t appreciate it, don’t care if it all comes from one way, if it hurts, if she doesn’t call, you want to lose yourself in their eyes, literally lose yourself…This is the One, I KNOW IT! (not! Or not always! Or to be specific, 95% of the time this is not the one)
21Discussion: Justin Bieber as a serious sociological phenomena… Why is Justin Bieber a sociological phenomena?What can we study about this phenomena?How can we study this?
22Sociology of fame/Sociology of celebrities? Why is Kim Kardashian popular?Why is Lady Gaga interesting?Why do we follow every step celebrities make?Role modelSocial constructionsMoney/LifestyleIdentification processes“gender“ issuesSexualizingSymbol?Moral of story?
23Is sociology a science?Natural science is the study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and changeSocial science is the study of the social features of humans and the ways they interact and change
24Positioning sociology among other sciences: economicspsychologygeographyCommunication studiesAnthropologyHistoryPolitical scienceSociology overlaps with other social sciences, but much of the territory it covers is unique
25How the different disciplines in social sciences see each other: Even in social sciences itself the disciplines have their own differences and prejudices against each other…
26 Sociology =the systematic or scientific study of human society and social behavior, from large scale institutions and mass culture to small groups and individual interactionsThe sociology of The Sopranos would deal with family, mafia, loyalty, the experience of crime, morality, immigration, integration etc.
27Socius Logos [study of society] Another more pragmatic definition by Becker (1986): sociology is the study of“people doing things together”Above definition reminds us of the fact that neither society nor the individual exists in isolation but each is dependent on the intertwined with the other…Humans are social beings :Not only for survival, but importantly because our very sense of self derives from our membership in society (E.g. family, neighborhoods, etc.)
28Awakening the sociological imagination To illuminatethe connection betweenthe individual and society
29Micro and Macro sociology The different sociological perspectives are like the photographers' lenses, allowing different ways of looking at a common subject (Newman, 2000):Sociologist can take:a Micro sociological lens: zoom lensa Macro sociological lens:wide-angle lensor any number of perspectives located on the continuum between the two
30Macro and Micro perspectives: The micro perspective assumes that society’s larger structures are shaped through individual interactions;while,The macro perspective assumes that society’s larger structures shape those individual interactionsThink of these perspectives as being on a continuum
32Levels of analysis: micro- and macro sociology: societycultureSocial institutions(economics, politics, education, mass media, religion)Social inequality (class, gender, ethnicity)GroupsRolesSocializationInteractionselfSociology covers a wide range of topics at different levels of analysis
34Sociological Imagination (1) One quality of mind that all the great social analysts need to possess in order to study social phenomenaThe ability to understand“ the intersection between biography and history”The interplay between the self and the worldA quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social levelC. Wright Mills ( )
35Sociological imagination (2) The sociological imagination requires that we search for the link between the micro and macro levels of analysisMill’s characterization of sociology as the intersection between biography and history reminds us that the process works in both directions:While larger social forces influence individual lives, there are many ways in which our individual lives can affect society as well
36Sociology and Common Sense? Our theories and opinions typically come from ‘common sense’ , every day knowledge and experiences. These can be biased and incidental This is not the sociological imagination!The commonsense knowledge, while sometimes accurate, is not always reliable, because it rests on commonly held beliefs rather or assumptions than on systematic analysis of facts.Doing sociology is a radical undertaking: it requires from us a willingness to suspend our own pre-conceptions, assumptions and beliefs about the way things are
37Example of the awakening of the sociological imagination:
38How to think like a sociologist Never assume anythingGet ready to be wrongAsk even more questionsMake the everyday strangeEmbrace life’s complexities
39Ways to stimulate the sociological imagination: Try to create in ourselves a sense of what anthropologists call Culture ShockThis term was coined in Anthropology to describe the experience of visiting an exotic foreign country.The first encounters with the local natives and their way of life can seem so strange to us that they produce a kind of disorientation and doubt about our ability to make sense of things. Putting all judgments aside for the momentThis state of mind is very useful At this point: when we completely lack an understanding of our surroundings we start truly perceiving what is in front of our eyes
40Culture shockWhat about the Tourists that come for the first time to Aruba, would they experience a similar culture shock?In the TV show Lost, six of the characters return from a deserted island to discover that ordinary experiences that they previously took for granted seem strikingly different or unfamiliarOr my favorite analogy for the awakening of the sociological imagination that started with an unbelievable culture shock: Alice in Wonderland
41Assignment: An experiment in “Doing nothing” Practice the opposite of the expert’s mind which is so filled with facts, projections, assumptions, opinions and explanations that it can’t learn anything new You need a Beginners mind: approaching the world without preconceptions in order to see things in a new way…DISCOVERY Make the assignment Analyzing everyday life: for the next session on Monday (August 22nd)We will then test your ability to apply a beginner’s mind