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Chapter One WHOLE NUMBERS: HOW TO DISSECT AND SOLVE WORD PROBLEMS 1-1

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LU 1-1: Reading, Writing, and Rounding Whole Numbers 1.Use place values to read and write numeric and verbal whole numbers. 2.Round whole numbers to the indicated position. 3.Use blueprint aid for dissecting and solving a word problem. LU 1-2: Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers 1.Add whole numbers; check and estimate addition computations. 2.Subtract whole numbers; check and estimate subtraction computations. LU 1-3: Multiplying and Dividing Whole Numbers 1.Multiply whole numbers; check and estimate multiplication computations. 2.Divide whole numbers; check and estimate computations. LEARNING UNIT OBJECTIVES 1-2

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WHOLE NUMBER PLACE-VALUE CHART 1-3 1,605,743,891,412 displayed on the Whole Number Group Chart:

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WRITING NUMERIC AND VERBAL WHOLE NUMBERS 1,605,743,891,412 verbalized: One trillion, six hundred five billion, seven hundred forty-three million, eight hundred ninety-one thousand, four hundred twelve 1-4

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CONVERTING PARTS TO A REGULAR WHOLE NUMBER 1-5 Convert 2.3 million to a regular whole number. 2,300,000 Step 2. Add zeros so the left most digit ends in the word name of the amount you want to convert. Be sure to add commas as needed. Step 1. Drop the decimal point and insert a comma. 2,32,3

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ROUNDING WHOLE NUMBERS 1-6 9400 Step 3. Drop all digits to the right of the identified digit. Step 1. Identify the place value of the digit you want to round. 9362 Step 2. Identify the digit to the right. 9362 If 5 or more, increase the identified digit by 1, if less than 5 do not change. 9462

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ROUNDING ALL THE WAY 1-7 Step 2. Identify the digit to the right. 7843 8000 Step 3. Change all other digits to zero. If 5 or more, increase the identified digit by 1, if less than 5 do not change. 7843 Step 1. Identify the left most digit. 7843

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HOW TO DISSECT AND SOLVE A WORD PROBLEM Organization and persistence 1-8

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GENERAL PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCEDURE Step 1. State the problem(s). 1-9 Step 4. Evaluate results. Step 3. Does the solution make sense? Step 2. Decide on the best method(s) to solve the problem(s).

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HOW TO DISSECT AND SOLVE A WORD PROBLEM Sales: One hundred ninety-four million dollars. ----------->$194,000,000 -----------> $200,000,000 Profit: Twenty-two million, five hundred fifty-six thousand dollars --------> $22,556,000 ---------> $20,000,000 1-10 Tootsie Roll Industries’ sales reached one hundred ninety- four million dollars and a record profit of twenty-two million, five hundred fifty-six thousand dollars. Round the sales and profit figures all the way.

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ADDING WHOLE NUMBERS 3 Steps 1. Align the numbers according to their place values. Example 1,362 5,913 8,924 6,594 22,793 1-11 3. Moving to the left, repeat Step 2 until all place values are added. 2. Add the units column. Write the sum below the column. If the sum is more than 9, write the units digit and carry the tens digit.

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ALTERNATIVE CHECK Ones Column 2 + 3 + 4 + 413 Tens Column 6 + 1 + 2 + 918 Hundreds Column 3 + 9 + 9 + 526 Thousands Column 1 + 5 + 8 + 6 20 1-12 22,793 1,362 5,913 8,924 6,594 Add each column as a separate total and then combine. The end result is the same.

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ESTIMATE ADDITION BY ROUNDING ALL THE WAY Example 2 1 1 1,362 5,913 8,924 6,594 22,793 1-13 Example 1,000 6,000 9,000 7,000 23,000 *Final answer could have more than one non-zero since total is not rounded all the way.

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SUBTRACTING WHOLE NUMBERS 3 Steps 1. Align the minuend and subtrahend by place values. 1-14 Check 70 +60 130 3. Moving to the left, repeat Step 2 until all place values in the subtrahend are subtracted. Example 130 (Minuend) - 60 (Subtrahend) 70 Difference 2. Begin the subtraction with the units digits. Write the difference below the column. If the units digit in the minuend is smaller than the digit in the subtrahend, borrow 1 from the tens digit in the minuend.

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2. Multiply the right digit of the multiplier with the right digit of the multiplicand. Keep multiplying as you move left through the multiplicand. 836 1 Example 418 (Multiplicand) x 52 (Multiplier) 4 Steps 1. Align the multiplicand and multiplier at the right. MULTIPLICATION OF WHOLE NUMBERS 1-15 1 2 X 418

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MULTIPLICATION OF WHOLE NUMBERS 3. Your partial product right digit or first digit is placed directly below the digit in the multiplier that you used to multiply. 2,090 2 (Partial Product) 4. Continue steps 2 and 3 until the multiplication process is complete. Add the partial products to get the final product. 21,736 (Product)

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CHECKING AND ESTIMATING MULTIPLICATION 1-17 Check 52 x 418 416 52 20 8 21,736 Check the multiplication process by reversing the multiplicand and multiplier and then multiplying. Estimate 50 x 400 20,000

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MULTIPLICATION SHORTCUT WITH NUMBERS ENDING IN ZERO 1-18 1. When zeros are at the end of the multiplicand or the multiplier, or both, disregard the zeros and multiply. 3 Steps (4) 2. Count the number of zeros in the multiplicand and multiplier. (4) Example 65000 (3 zeros) x 420 (1 zero) (4 zeros) 3. Attach the number of zeros counted in Step 2 to your answer. Solution 65 x 42 130 260 0000 27,300,000

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MULTIPLYING A WHOLE NUMBER BY A POWER OF 10 1-19 99 x 10 99 x 100 99 x 1,000 1. Count the number of zeros in the power of 10. 2 Steps 2. Attach that number of zeros to the right side of the other whole number to obtain the answer. Insert commas as needed. = 990 = 990 <----Add 1 Zero = 9,900 = 9,900 <----Add 2 Zero = 99,000 = 99,000 <----Add 3 Zero

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Divisor Quotient Dividend DIVISION OF WHOLE NUMBERS 1-20 1 15 120 8 0 Count how many times one number (Divisor) is contained in another number (Dividend). The result is the Quotient. Example 15 270

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Example 7 169 DIVISION OF WHOLE NUMBERS 1-21 Count how many times one number (Divisor) is contained in another number (Dividend). The result is the Quotient. Divisor Quotient Dividend 2 14 29 4 R 1 28 1

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ESTIMATING AND CHECKING DIVISION Check 138 x 36 828 4 14 4,968 + 111 5,079 Estimate 50 100 5,000 1-22 Example 36 R 111 Quotient Divisor 138 5079 Dividend 414 939 828 111

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DIVISION SHORTCUT WITH NUMBERS ENDING IN ZEROS 2 Steps 1-23 = 9,500 <----Drop 1 Zero = 950 <----Drop 2 Zeros = 95 <----Drop 3 Zeros 2. Drop the same number of zeros in the dividend as in the divisor, counting from right to left. 95,000 / 10 -- 95,000 95,000 / 100 -- 95,000 95,000 / 1,000 -- 95,000 1. Count the number of ending zeros in the divisor.

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PROBLEM 1-53 Website:Average daily unique visitor: 1.Orbitz.com1,527,000 2.Mypoints.com1,356,000 3.Americangreetings.com 745,000 4.Bizrate.com 503,000 5.Half.com 397,000 1,527,000 1,356,000 745,000 503,000 + 397,000 4,528,000 visitors Solution: 54,528,000 45 28 25 30 905,600 average 1-24

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PROBLEM 1-63 90 + 70 + 65 + 310 = 535 customers x $9 $ 4,815 Solution (a): Solution (b): $4,815 x 52 = $250,380 1-25

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PROBLEM 1-65 $71,000 - 6,820 ($1,388 + $4,402 + $1,030) $64,180 Solution: 1-26

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PROBLEM 1-69 $ 900 + 1,200 $2,100 - 614 ($350 + $44 + $160 + $60) $1,486 Solution: 1-27 Surf to Save

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SURF TO SAVE 28

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Business Math, Eighth Edition Cleaves/Hobbs © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved 3.1 Decimals and the Place.

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