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Fish Dissection Image from:

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1 Fish Dissection Image from:

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3 NOTOCHORD Notochord: flexible rod Helps organize developing cells in embryo Replaced by spinal cord in most vertebrates

4 DORSAL NERVE CORD Spinal cord forms along dorsal side Images from:

5 PHARYNGEAL POUCHES Become gills in some vertebrates Become back of throat and inner ears in humans

6 POST ANAL TAIL

7 Human Embryo 32 days old Pharyngeal arches appear during 4 th week. Tail disappears at approximately 8 weeks

8 CHORDATES: NOTOCHORD PHARYNGEAL POUCHES POST ANAL TAIL DORSAL NERVE CORD VERTEBRATES: ALL CHORDATE CHARACTERISTICS PLUS: Bones or cartilage around a dorsal nerve cord Cranium (skull) to protect brain Endoskeleton made of bone or cartilage Closed circulatory system Ventral heart

9 There are over 30,000 species of fish

10 Images from:

11 Images from: Ray-finned have spines in fins (no bones) Lobe-finned Have short stubby limbs; bones in fins

12 Lobe fin fish Coelocanth Australian lung fish

13 RAYS- Thin spines in fins

14 LOBE FINNED FISH are believed to be ancestors to amphibians

15 Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish

16 BONY FISH CHARACTERISTICS Endoskeleton of bone Scales & fins Lungs or swim bladder

17 ENDOSKELETON

18 FISH LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” OSTEICHTHYES “bony fish”

19 CEPHALIZATION BILATERAL SYMMETRY DORSAL VENTRAL ANTERIOR POSTERIOR

20 Integumentary Scales- decrease water resistance protection growth rings increase with age

21 Coloration-darker on top/lighter on bottom Body Shape-streamlined RAYS- protection from predators

22 OPERCULUM Water goes in through mouth out through slit behind operculum

23 Nostrils-dead end pockets smell-important Eye-no eyelid Mouth-teeth don’t chew Ears- not external

24 Anterior Dorsal Posterior Dorsal Pelvic Anal Caudal Pectoral

25 LATERAL LINE Senses vibrations & water pressure

26 ANUS exit for digestive waste UROGENITAL OPENING (PORE) exit for urine & eggs or sperm

27 INTERNAL STRUCTURES

28 RESPIRATORY Gill Arch Gill Filaments

29 COUNTERCURRENT FLOW Diagram by Riedell

30 COUNTERCURRENT FLOW

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32 GAS EXCHANGE IN GILLS

33 FUNCTIONS OF GILLS 1.Gas exchange 2. Excrete Nitrogen waste as ammonia 3. OSMOREGULATION regulate ion/water balance

34 HYPER, HYPO, ISOTONIC?

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39 Image from:

40 OVARY-makes eggs Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

41 TESTES-make sperm Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

42 REPRODUCTION MOST FISH HAVE: EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION DIRECT DEVELOPMENT BABY FISH = fry

43 SWIM BLADDER controls buoyancy Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

44 LIVER & improved digestive gland Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

45 LIVER (improved digestive gland) Makes bile used by intestine Stores glycogen Stores vitamins ( especially oil soluble ones- A & D) Processes TOXINS for removal by excretory system (including nitrogen waste made by cells) GALL BLADDER Stores bile made by liver

46 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Diagram by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

47 STOMACH Cardiac & Pyloric Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

48 STOMACH 1.Add acid and digestive juices 2.Starts digestion 3.Grind and mash food

49 INTESTINE 1. First section receives bile from liver (called DUODENUM) 2. Finishes digestion 3. Absorbs nutrients 4. Collect and remove digestive waste Finger-like extensions inside (VILLI) increase surface area for greater absorption of nutrients

50 INTESTINE

51 VILLI Tiny finger-like extensions inside intestine increase surface area for greater absorption of nutrients

52 PYLORIC CAECA Contain microorganisms (bacteria) to break down plant material Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

53 DUODENUM Receives bile from liver Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

54 PANCREAS ( Digestive & Endocrine functions) 1. MAKES TRYPSIN for intestine (digests proteins) 2. MAKES 2 hormones to regulate blood sugar INSULIN ( cells take up & store glucose ) GLUCAGON (cells release stored glucose to blood)

55 Diagram by Riedell

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57 HEART Atrium receives blood from Sinus venosus Ventricle – pumping chamber Conus arteriosus-smoothes flow of blood out of heart

58 2 CHAMBER HEART 1 LOOP system

59 SINGLE loop CLOSED circulation

60 ARTERIES carry blood AWAY from the heart Capillaries connect arteries and veins (gas exchange occurs here) VEINS carry blood returning to the heart

61 SPLEEN- Produces new RBC’s Processes & destroys old worn out RBC’s Stores RBC’s for release when needed Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

62 KIDNEY Collects and removes nitrogen waste (ammonia) Osmoregulation –maintain water/ion balance Image by Riedell/Vanderwal©2005

63 URINARY BLADDER Stores urine made by kidneys SWIM (Air) BLADDER Receives gases from bloodstream Controls buoyancy GALL BLADDER Stores bile made by liver

64 UROGENITAL PORE shared by excretory & reproductive systems Diagram by Riedell ANUS – for digestive waste

65 BRAIN Image modified from:

66 OPTIC TECTUM Receives and processes info from visual, auditory (hearing), and lateral line system BRAIN

67 CEREBRUM controls higher thinking (memory, learning, reasoning, problem solving) integrates info from other brain parts BRAIN

68 OLFACTORY BULBS Smell BRAIN

69 OLFACTORY NERVES Smell BRAIN

70 CEREBELLUM Motor (muscle) coordination Balance BRAIN

71 MEDULLA OBLONGATA Relay center for sensory info from body Controls “Autonomic” body organs BRAIN


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