2 About Myself Graphic and Product Design Advertising Classic and Computer AnimationSet up Torc Interactive – games and MiddlewareMSc Computing and Design PT Lecturing UU, LYITMultimedia Professional. VAC, GFR, O’SRNov. 06 University of UlsterNow Non-Exec Director and Academic Fellow
3 Presentation A Brief History of Anatomy Current Generation of Visualisation and OversightOur Team, Developments and PlansThe Institute of Plastenation and future external work plans
4 A Brief History of Anatomy pt1 Herophilus of Egypt (unkown) First reportedly to dissect human and animal Bodies.Galen of Pergamum ( AD) Known as the Prince of Physicians.Vesalius (1513 – 1564) Promoted the idea of “Living Anatomy”. Fabrica was based on own observations and drawings.DaVinci (1452 – 1519) Dissected bodies as study of anatomy in art until pope told him to stop.Burke and Hare (1820s) Famous Irish grave robbers.Sold to Edinburgh Shool of Medicine during shortage of bodies. 17 murderscommonly using “burking”. Hare executed, Burke spared. Resulted in 1832 Anatomy laws.
5 A Brief History of Anatomy pt2 Grey’s Anatomy (1858) Arguably the mst famous anatomical reference in medical history to date. Spt has been 40th edition.Nomina Anatomica (1895, 1955) Unified naming conventions in anatomy. From 50k+ terms to caTerminologia Anatomica (1985) superceeeded thisAnatomy in the 21st Century Computer generated images, MRIs, X-Rays etc. Visible Human Project. Male and Female Cadavers dissected in 1mm segs.Gunther Von Hagens Plastenation, Body Worlds, First Public Autopsy in 170 years (Anatomy Act 1984), Channel 4 programmes – Anatomy for Beginners, Autopsy – Life and Death, Autopsy – Emergency room.
6 Current 3d Human Visualisation Examples of Applications and Model SolutionsVisible Human Project (Ongoing)Visible Body (Argosy Publishing 2007)Primal Pictures Anatomy TV (Primal Pictures 2006)
7 Current 3d Human Visualisation Examples of Applications and Model Solutions3dScience.com by ZygoteBodyworlds Exhibition, Manchester
8 Current 3d Human Visualisation Oversights Advances in external areas not being mirrored internallyColours, Hue and Opacity not represented accurately
9 Current 3d Human Visualisation Oversights Articulation is generally at a low bone level (207+ as opposed to ca. 50)Mesh Topology is Poor for Animation and Texturing. 3d Scanning.
10 Current 3d Human Visualisation Oversights Tend towards diagrammatic representation as opposed to reality based.In general data not clinically accurate
11 Current Research and Development Current Focus of the Digital Human Visualisation and Articulation ProjectSpinal research (focus JD Magee)Head and Facial ReproductionThe Human HandJD Magee PhD -RCUK Grants totalling 250k for 2 Academic Fellows- Terry Quigley and Mark Cullen.
13 R&D- The SpineSpine articulation and simulation project- Movement in healthy and dysfunctional spinesSubject of PhD by JD MageeClinically accurate spine model581 clinically researched Measurements to a tolerance of 0.1mm and ± 0.1°Static 3d Model reflecting findings created.
16 R&D- The Spine Spine Articulation (Currently) Range of Clinical Motion in place in 3d Studio MAXUse of Max Scripting to limit movement on animation3 main points of movement can be measured using MoCapConstraints put in place overwriting MoCap movements that are impossible.Working with Paul Neale on perfecting the Max scripting for many aspects of human visualisation.
18 R&D- The Head Recreate the human head All underlying muscle structures and bones to as clinical a level as possible.Morphable into different shapes showing ethnicity, sex or character.Photographic Research (ethics)Recreate a person with all facial expressions and characteristics of the face.Tie in with Institute of Plastination for tissue research etc.
19 R&D- The Head Skin Rendering. Sub Surface Scattering Imitates the opacity and layering of skin.Complicated Shader Authoring (HLSL, CG)Epidermal, SubDermal, Specular, Height Map, Displacement Map (multiple Versions)Photographic Reference used for Texturing.Unwrapping of Model to apply texturing.
22 R&D- The Head Facial Expressions and Lip-Syncing. Morph Targets coupled with Displacement Texture Changes (wrinkles etc) with MAXScript. Offline.Most precise and realistic results.Realtime requires the use of bones in most systems.Able to be used on Multiple faces for using same animation
24 Morph Targets and Morph Textures R&D- The HeadMorph Targets and Morph TexturesBone Based Animation
25 R&D- The HeadCurrently- Learning the tools that allow the detailed modelling and texturing required.Researching characteristics of the human head and craniometry.University of Manchester- Art in Medicine closed July 2008
26 R&D- The HandRecreating the hand and its articulation with reference to Plastination research
27 PlastinationPlastination developed by Gunther Von Hagens. First recorded specimen was in First exhibition 1995.Set up the institute of Plastination in Heidelberg 1993Benefits- Dry, Clean, Odourless and Durable.Accurate Human Tissue Representation, Models Durable and Flexible, Preserved Dissections (timely ethical framework avoidance)
28 Plastination Process: Collaboration Embalming and Anatomical DissectionRemove Body Fat and WaterForced ImpregnationPositioningCuring (Hardening)CollaborationProduce at show materials with interactivityProduce fully animateable 3d Plastenate based on real data and tissue colouration