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History Greeks and Romans Hippocrates ~ 400 BC Aristotle ~ 350 BC The Alexandrians ~ after 300 BC Galen ~ 200 AD –Diseases have a natural cause. mechanism:

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Presentation on theme: "History Greeks and Romans Hippocrates ~ 400 BC Aristotle ~ 350 BC The Alexandrians ~ after 300 BC Galen ~ 200 AD –Diseases have a natural cause. mechanism:"— Presentation transcript:

1 History Greeks and Romans Hippocrates ~ 400 BC Aristotle ~ 350 BC The Alexandrians ~ after 300 BC Galen ~ 200 AD –Diseases have a natural cause. mechanism: imbalance of the four humors –sanguine, choleric, melancholy, phlegmatic –Anatomy and Physiology (structure and function / machine and mechanism) are related to each other.

2 History Fall of the Western Roman Empire Dark Ages in Europe Islamic Contributions –Preserved and improved on Greek and Roman science Arabic numerals Arabic words –Al-gebra –Al-cohol –Cotton »Al-godon

3 St. Basil - Moscow Taj Mahal - India St. Sophia – 6 th Century A.D. Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) Byzantine Greek

4 History Renaissance –Translation of Greek classics into Latin –Human Dissection Vesalius – physician / anatomist

5 History 18 th, 19 th and 20 th Centuries –Chemistry 1828 – Wöhler synthesizes urea Today – Genetic Engineering, Cloning

6 –Cell Theory Late 17 th C. – Robert Hooke and Antony Van Leeuwenhoek –Cells seen in microscopes. 1830’s – Schleiden and Schwann –The cell is the basic unit of life for all plants and animals. 1850’s Virchow [plus Pasteur] –All cells come from other cells. Late 1800’s – light microscope perfected (1000 x magnification) 1950’s – electron microscope perfected ( >100,000 x magnification)

7 Medical Terminology Anatomy = study of structure (the machine) ana = “up”; tomy = to cut anatomy = to cut up, to dissect [Greek based] [Latin based] Physiology = study of function (the mechanism) physio = nature; logy = study of [same root as physics] Normal function requires energy. The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics apply.

8 Medical Terminology Homeostasis = normal operating condition steady state (dynamic) –homeo: similar to cf. homo: same as [Nicene Creed ~ 400 A.D.] –stasis: standing / condition “The various physiologic arrangements which serve to restore the normal state once it has been disturbed.” – W.B. Cannon


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