Presentation on theme: "History Greeks and Romans Hippocrates ~ 400 BC Aristotle ~ 350 BC The Alexandrians ~ after 300 BC Galen ~ 200 AD –Diseases have a natural cause. mechanism:"— Presentation transcript:
History Greeks and Romans Hippocrates ~ 400 BC Aristotle ~ 350 BC The Alexandrians ~ after 300 BC Galen ~ 200 AD –Diseases have a natural cause. mechanism: imbalance of the four humors –sanguine, choleric, melancholy, phlegmatic –Anatomy and Physiology (structure and function / machine and mechanism) are related to each other.
History Fall of the Western Roman Empire Dark Ages in Europe Islamic Contributions –Preserved and improved on Greek and Roman science Arabic numerals Arabic words –Al-gebra –Al-cohol –Cotton »Al-godon
St. Basil - Moscow Taj Mahal - India St. Sophia – 6 th Century A.D. Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) Byzantine Greek
History Renaissance –Translation of Greek classics into Latin –Human Dissection Vesalius – physician / anatomist
–Cell Theory Late 17 th C. – Robert Hooke and Antony Van Leeuwenhoek –Cells seen in microscopes. 1830’s – Schleiden and Schwann –The cell is the basic unit of life for all plants and animals. 1850’s Virchow [plus Pasteur] –All cells come from other cells. Late 1800’s – light microscope perfected (1000 x magnification) 1950’s – electron microscope perfected ( >100,000 x magnification)
Medical Terminology Anatomy = study of structure (the machine) ana = “up”; tomy = to cut anatomy = to cut up, to dissect [Greek based] [Latin based] Physiology = study of function (the mechanism) physio = nature; logy = study of [same root as physics] Normal function requires energy. The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics apply.
Medical Terminology Homeostasis = normal operating condition steady state (dynamic) –homeo: similar to cf. homo: same as [Nicene Creed ~ 400 A.D.] –stasis: standing / condition “The various physiologic arrangements which serve to restore the normal state once it has been disturbed.” – W.B. Cannon