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What happens to Europe when Napoleon is gone? 19 th century Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "What happens to Europe when Napoleon is gone? 19 th century Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 What happens to Europe when Napoleon is gone? 19 th century Europe

2 Congress of Vienna European conference to restore, adapt to change Led by Metternich (Austria)

3 Klemens von Metternich (Austria)  Created secret police  Opened mail  Listened to conservations  Followed travelers  1820 Karlsbad Decrees in German states breaking up student societies, censoring press

4 Alexander I (Russia)  Couldn’t handle semi-independent Poland (created 1815)  Relig control of educ  Censorship  Crackdown arresting students, dismissing professors  Died suddenly 1825 (November), led to liberal Decembrist Revolt; Nicholas I crushed it, instituted Third Section for next 30 years

5 Who is enemy?  Not France, no Louis XVIII  Read to see terms France given  Although, after Napoleon’s Hundred Days, France forced to pay fine and return art

6 War and ambition are the enemy   Balance of power  GB detached, navy defensive  Prussia expansive – potential probl  Russian troops in Paris – will go home?  Cong of Vienna tries to maintain peace, does good job

7 Nationalism is the enemy  Fr Rev and Napoleonic Wars stir passions  Inspired French  Created Kingdom of Italy  Inspired German nationalists in resistance to French culture, institutions, reforms  Why is Austrian rule of Serbs right, but French rule of Austrians wrong?  Why are Germans divided?  Poets as heroes, e.g. Adam Mickiewicz – Polish exiles as martyrs of crucified nation

8  Carbonari = Italian secret societies  German university nationalist student societies  Greek revolt vs. Ottomans – Austria feared, but Russia supported

9 Liberalism, republicanism, and democracy are enemies  So crackdown when possible  Ferdinand VII of Spain imposes absolute rule, dismisses new constitution, only two newspapers allowed, foreign lit confiscated at border

10 Liberalism  From “liberty”, to be free  NOT equality  Laissez-faire and removal of social privilege  Want constitutions against whimsy  Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham – usefulness, not bloodlines or privilege, “greatest good for the greatest number of people” (change, always change)

11 Enlightenment is over  Temporarily, anyway – conservatism, royalism, nobility, church restored  No longer influence on art and liter and relig

12 Enlightenment Art  Influenced by classical ideals and forms  Balance, restraint, mathematical  Nature – intellectual, orderly

13 Romanticism  Against Enlightenment  Against Industrialization (machines cold, urban)  Nature – sensual, beautiful, warm, simple countryside, unpolluted  Individualism, sacrifice, heroism; “Dare to be yourself!”  Spirits of the peoples and nations  Lots of poet-heroes (Goethe, William Blake, Byron)

14 Joseph Turner, Steamer in a Snowstorm, 1842

15 Turner, Slave Ship, 1840

16 Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830

17 Delacroix, Christ on the Lake of Gennesaret

18  Delacroix, Greece on the ruins of Missolonghi, 1826

19 John Constable, The Haywain, 1821

20 Constable, The White Horse, 1819

21 Constable, Stratford Mill,1820

22 Theodore Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1819

23 David Caspar Frederich, Abby in an Oak Forest, 1809

24  Caspar, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818

25 Frederich, Sunset (Brothers), 1835

26 William Wordsworth, “The Tables Turned”, 1798  The Tables Turned  By William Wordsworth Up! up! my Friend, and quit your books; William WordsworthWilliam Wordsworth  Or surely you'll grow double:  Up! up! my Friend, and clear your looks;  Why all this toil and trouble?  The sun above the mountain's head,  A freshening lustre mellow  Through all the long green fields has spread,  His first sweet evening yellow.  Books! 'tis a dull and endless strife:  Come, hear the woodland linnet,  How sweet his music! on my life,  There's more of wisdom in it.  And hark! how blithe the throstle sings!  He, too, is no mean preacher:  Come forth into the light of things,  Let Nature be your teacher.  She has a world of ready wealth,  Our minds and hearts to bless—  Spontaneous wisdom breathed by health,  Truth breathed by cheerfulness.  One impulse from a vernal wood  May teach you more of man,  Of moral evil and of good,  Than all the sages can.  Sweet is the lore which Nature brings;  Our meddling intellect  Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things:—  We murder to dissect.  Enough of Science and of Art;  Close up those barren leaves;  Come forth, and bring with you a heart  That watches and receives.  Books! 'tis a dull and endless strife:  Come, hear the woodland linnet,  How sweet his music! on my life,  There's more of wisdom in it.  Sweet is the lore which Nature brings;  Our meddling intellect  Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things:—  We murder to dissect.  Enough of Science and of Art;  Close up those barren leaves;  Come forth, and bring with you a heart  That watches and receives.

27 Conservativism  Reaction to revolutionary ideology  Enlight  guillotine, authoritarianism

28 Edmund Burke  Natural is good – intellectual mind game experiment is bad  Don’t force change, that harms nature  Institutions change as needed  Religion essential to any society  Respect for tradition crucial

29 In France?  Louis XVIII kept Napoleon’s Civil Code, rights of ownership to church lands sold  Established legislature  “Ultras” (ultraroyalists) attacked, murdered 100s of Bonapartists, former revs, 1816 abolished divorce, set up courts to punish revolutionaries  Louis XVIII realist, succeeded by Charles X much more conservative: head of gov was “Ultra-Ultra”, death penalty for sacrilege

30 Religion is crucial, so...  Tradition! Institution!  But also “Second Great Awakening” – salvation for sins, anti-Reason, emotional revivals

31 Socialism  React to Indust Rev  Utopianists  Robert Owen  Claude Henri de Saint-Simon – work is center of new society  Charles Fourier – phalanxes decentralize society (garden/agriculture)  Harmony through social reorganization


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