Presentation on theme: "LESSON PLAN By Aftab A. Memon June 08, 2010 For the Fulfillment of MRC’s requirement circulated vide Resolution No. 22.q dated: 17-05-2007 and 27.2 (e)"— Presentation transcript:
LESSON PLAN By Aftab A. Memon June 08, 2010 For the Fulfillment of MRC’s requirement circulated vide Resolution No. 22.q dated: and 27.2 (e) dated:
LESSON PLAN CONTENT: A lesson is an organized set of activities designed to present one manageable sized piece of your course. It is a written description to teach academic content. It determines the purpose, aim, and rational of your class time activity. You may have more than one lesson in a 50 minute lecture or lab. A lecture is just one teaching technique that you may use in a lesson. GOAL: The goal is to teach and demonstrate participants making a quality lesson plan which will help enhance and organize their teaching skills. OBJECTIVES: The participants will be able to 1.Understand elements of lesson Plan 2.Differentiate and choose the more effective instructional method 3.Know the importance of critical thinking in lessons 4.Know importance and usage of resource materials in a lesson 5.Single out proper evaluation method to gauge the achieved goals 6.Integrate and organize all objectives to design a lesson plan
INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD: Lecture, Interactive session, group discussions, debate. TEACHING PROCEDURE: A short lecture would be given by instructor on elements of lesson plan Participants would be encouraged to pool in their concepts about various elements of lesson plan Participants from various fields will contribute their understanding of elements of a lesson plan The concepts and understandings would evolve after group discussions Outcomes of group discussions would become open for debate Each group expert in any field would present their lesson plan. Lesson Plan (Continued)
MATERIALS/RESOURCES: Multimedia presentations White board presentations Online dictionary & search engines PRACTICE: The participants in the end would design the lesson plan best suited to their field of specialization EVALUATION: The designed lesson plan would be debated openly about its effectiveness. OUTCOME: Participants can design the Lesson Plan of their field of interest and can guide their department fellows for writing a lesson plan. REFERENCES; “Common teaching methods” & “Enhancing your teaching effectiveness”, “Lesson planning procedures”, “Daily Lesson Plan”, honolulu.hawai.edu
Element #0 LESSON TITLE: _____________________ COURSE NAME: ______________ DEPARTMENT: __________________________ INSTRUCTOR’S NAME _____________________________ TO START: Decide on the signal for attention, e.g.,.Good Morning. Let's get started or eyes on me. Explain the rules and procedures, e.g. raising hands or not talking at once. Element #1 CONTENT or OVERVIEW or SHORT DESCRIPTION: Write a brief overview (approximately 50 words) of your lesson that explains the content to the reader. Write the lesson description. Example: SOLAR ENERGY & HEAT This lesson is designed to explore different aspects of solar energy. The students have already been exposed to various forms of alternate energy sources and the reasons for their use. The students will build a solar hot box in order to test various colors and materials to find the maximum temperature that can be reached.
Element #2 GOALS The purpose toward which an endeavor is directed. OR the end toward which effort is directed. A statement of general purpose and direction—it is the ultimate end result. The goal is the accomplishment toward which all of your effort is directed. something that somebody wants to achieve, e.g. One of my goals is to learn trigonometry. Example: SOLAR ENERGY AND HEAT The goal is to demonstrate to students that different colors and materials create various temperatures.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Goals – are long-term aims that you want to accomplish. Objectives – are concrete attainments that can be achieved by following a certain number of steps may be in short term and medium term. Goals are intangible; objectives are tangible i.e. Goals are hard to quantify or put in a timeline, but objectives should be given a timeline to be more effective. Goals are general intentions; objectives are precise. Goals are nebulous and you can’t definitively say you have accomplished one whereas the success of an objective can easily be measured.
Element #3 OBJECTIVES An Objective is the object of one's endeavors. Objectives demonstrate how well the students have learned or understood the lesson presented. A statement describing what the project will achieve. Objectives are always measurable and should be: Specific Measurable Attainable/achievable Realistic Time-bound (SMART) Example: SOLAR ENERGY AND HEAT 1.The student will review the basic needs for alternative energy sources. 2.The students will be able to identify at least three different materials that will produce maximum heat. 3.The students will be able to identify at least three different colors that will produce maximum heat. Example: Given a paragraph of ten sentences, the student will be able to identify ten rules of grammar which are used in its construction.
Objectives (Continued) Three main domains of Objectives: Cognitive: What do you want your graduates to know (see next slide). Affective: What do you want your graduates to think and care about. The Affective Domain includes objectives pertaining to attitudes, appreciations, values and emotions Psychomotor: What do you want your graduates to be able to do. The Psychomotor Domain includes objectives that require basic motor skills and/or physical movement such as construct, kick or ski
Cognitive Domain: Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy and Critical Thinking Synthesis —create, combine : change, combine, compose, construct, create, design, find an unusual way, formulate, generate, invent, originate, plan, predict, pretend, produce, rearrange, reconstruct reorganize revise suggest suppose, visualize. Evaluation —appraise, value: appraise, choose, compare, conclude, decide, defend, evaluate, give your opinion, judge, justify, prioritize, rank, rate, select, support, value Analysis —dissect, generalize : analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, debate, deduct, determine the factors, diagnose, diagram, differentiate, dissect, distinguish, examine, infer, specify Application —use, practice: apply, compute, conclude, construct, demonstrate, determine, draw, find out, give an example, illustrate, make, operate, show, solve, state a rule or principle, use Comprehension -understanding: convert, describe, explain, interpret, paraphrase, put in order, restate,retell in your words, rewrite, summarize, trace, translate Knowledge/Remembering —recall: define, fill in the blank, identify, label, list, locate, match, memorize, name recall, spell, state, tell, underline.
Element #4 INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD/TECHNIQUE The techniques you plan to use in your lessons depend on: the types of students you have and their previous knowledge your physical teaching environment and the available equipment and resources the type of learning you are aiming for. Some of the possibilities are listed below. To convey information, use: lecture field trips discussion group interviewing an expert selected reading case studies demonstration by an expert To provide balanced presentation of a controversial subject, use: discussion group panel discussion selected reading simulation debate To involve people, use: discussion written work field trips case studies role playing group work guided experience To teach a skill, use: demonstration by an expert shop work labs guided experience practice with feedback (coaching) To pool thoughts and ideas, use: discussion brainstorming group work To reinforce memory, use: drill memory aids practice with feedback (coaching) written work
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF VARIOUS TECHNIQUES Lecture STRENGTHS: - presents factual material in direct, logical manner - contains experience which inspires - stimulates thinking to open discussion - useful for large groups LIMITATIONS: - experts are not always good teachers - audience is passive - learning is difficult to gauge - communication in one way Lecture With Discussion STRENGTHS: - involves audience at least after the lecture - audience can question, clarify & challenge LIMITATIONS: - time may limit discussion period - quality is limited to quality of questions and discussion Brainstorming STRENGTHS: - listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas - encourages full participation because all ideas equally recorded - draws on group's knowledge and experience - spirit of congeniality is created - one idea can spark off other other ideas LIMITATIONS: - can be unfocused - needs to be limited to minutes - people may have difficulty getting away from known reality - if not facilitated well, criticism and evaluation may occur Videotapes STRENGTHS: - entertaining way of teaching content and raising issues - keep group's attention - looks professional - stimulates discussion LIMITATIONS: - can raise too many issues to have a focused discussion - discussion may not have full participation - only as effective as following discussion
Class Discussion STRENGTHS: - pools ideas and experiences from group - effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed - allows everyone to participate in an active process LIMITATIONS: - not practical with more that 20 people - few people can dominate - others may not participate - is time consuming - can get off the track Small Group Discussion STRENGTHS: - allows participation of everyone - people often more comfortable in small groups - can reach group consensus LIMITATIONS: - needs careful thought as to purpose of group - groups may get side tracked Case Studies STRENGTHS: - develops analytic and problem solving skills - allows for exploration of solutions for complex issues - allows student to apply new knowledge and skills LIMITATIONS: - people may not see relevance to own situation - insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results
Element #5 TEACHING PROCEDURE or RESOURCES The detailed procedure to teach the lesson would be mentioned here OR all resource materials used would be mentioned. Example: SOLAR ENERGY & HEAT 1. Experiment with colors to determine which colors will absorb or reflect heat. Use colored cellophane when they build their boxes. 2. Experiment with materials to determine which materials will absorb or reflect heat. Use shoe boxes, foil, construction paper for the materials. 3. Explain that a solar hot box differs from a solar collector only in the respect that the solar heat is collected and contained in the box is not purposely transferred. The heat from a solar collector is usually transferred from the collector by a heated air or water medium to another location. 4. Students will build their own hot box using the colors and materials they choose. Students can work in pairs or alone to build their box and conduct the experiment. 5. Explain that each hot box groups will go outside and complete a temperature experiment to determine the maximum temperature it will reach. 6. Have each group set their experiment up with a thermometer on the inside.
Element #6 EVALUATION what the teacher can do to see if the what the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively: lesson was taught effectively: watching students work, assigning work, assigning application, activities, getting feedback, etc. Example: SOLAR ENERGY & HEAT ask the students to compose a paragraph addressing why solar energy might not be the answer to all the energy needs of the country.
LEARNING TASK Make groups consisting of members from similar departments. Choose a topic which is familiar to all members but must relate to your discipline. Design a lesson plan that best suites to the contents of the lecture. Element #7 OUTCOMES: Learning outcomes are statements that describe significant and essential learning that learners have achieved and can reliably demonstrate at the end of a course or program- the essential & enduring knowledge, skills, & attitudes that constitute the integrated learning needed by a graduate of a course or program. Difference between Objectives and Outcomes: Objectives are intended results or consequences of instructions, curricula, programs, or activities. Outcomes are achieved results or consequences of what was learned i.e evidence that learning took place. Element #8 REFERENCES: Show all references which are referred for the preparation of the lesson. It can have a chapter of a text book, or a research paper or lecture notes, websites, etc.
S.N O Department of Telecommunication Engineering, MUET, Jamshoro Name of Subject:___________________ Course Code:________ Name of Term: __________ Year: __________ Date: ________ Name of Instructor: ___________________ Title of Subject: __________ Lesson Title:____________________ Timings: _____ to _______ 01CONTENT: 02GOALS: 03OBJECTIVES: 04INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD: 05RESOURCES: 06EVALUATION: 07OUTCOMES: 08REFERENCES: SAMPLE WORK SHEET FOR LESSON PLAN