Presentation on theme: "Environmental plant biology: Interactions between plants pathogenic, beneficial and multitrophic organisms EPSO workshop Amsterdam, 21 November – 22 November."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental plant biology: Interactions between plants pathogenic, beneficial and multitrophic organisms EPSO workshop Amsterdam, 21 November – 22 November 2005 organized by John Mundy, Hans van Veen & Pierre de Wit
Aim of the EPSO workshop Bring together scientists to discuss and exchange ideas on future directions of research on molecular and ecological aspects of interactions between plants and their pathogenic and beneficial organisms and discuss possible applications for sustainable agriculture. Participants should produce a white paper on the subject that will aid EPSO to suggest new directions in research at European level, including the Strategic Research Agenda in “Plants for the Future”.
Theme 1: Interactions between plants, arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza Francis Martin, Nancy, France Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis Paola Bonfante, Turino, Italy Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis Theme 2: Interactions between plants and nitrogen fixing communities Jens Stougaard, Aarhus, Denmark Rhizobium-legume symbiosis Katharina Pawlowski, Stockholm, Sweden Nitrogen fixation outside the legumes Alfred Puehler, Bielefeld, Germany Ecology and evolution of alfalfa nodulating Sinorhizobium meliloti strains
Theme 3: Interactions between plants and plant growth stimulating bacteria and fungi Jos Vanderleijden, Leuven, Belgium Rhizosphere bacterial signaling: A love parade beneath our feet Jos Raaijmakers, Wageningen, The Netherlands Cyclic lipopeptide surfactants: versatile molecules in the interactions between beneficial bacteria, fungal pathogens and plants Matteo Lorito, Portici, Italy Biological control with non-pathogenic fungi Theme 4: Interactions between plants and pathogenic bacteria Ulla Bonas, Halle, Germany Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria interaction with the host plant John Mansfield, London, UK Bacterial virulence and basal resistance – lessons from Pseudomonas syringae Christian Boucher, Castanet Tolosan, France Integrated approach of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenicity determinants and of their plant targets
Theme 5: Interactions between plants and pathogenic fungi Marc-Henry Lebrun, Lyon, France Fungus-plant interactions: perspectives from the pathogen side James Brown, Norwich, UK Fitness costs of resistance and pathogenicity in fungal diseases of cereals Jane Parker, Cologne, Germany Intersection of obligate biotrophs with multi-layered plant defence Theme 6: Interactions between plants and pathogenic nematodes Wim van der Putten, Heteren, The Netherlands Plant adaptation to parasitic nematodes in a multitrophic environment Pierre Abad, Sofia Antipolis, France Root-knot nematode parasitism and plant host response Theme 7: Multitrophic interactions between plants and biotic agents Philippe Reymond, Lausanne, Switzerland Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis after herbivore attack Marcel Dicke, Wageningen, The Netherlands Multitrophic interactions in plant-pathogen-herbivore systems
Challenges for future research on plant pathogens Pathogenicity factors Determine functions of bacterial and fungal effectors. Determine plant targets of bacterial and fungal effectors. Sequence genomes of relatives of plant pathogens. Compare strategies of pathogens with different life styles by comparative genomics, transcriptomics, bio-informatics, proteomics, metabolomics. Plant responses to pathogens Dissect signaling pathways in susceptible plants (intrinsic functions of effectors). Dissect basal defense pathways (innate immunity induced by pathogen- associated molecular patterns; PAMPs). Dissect signaling pathways in resistant plants (resistance gene- mediated defense pathways).
Challenges for future research on resistance breeding against pathogens Study various types of resistance Basal resistance mechanisms. Major, minor resistance genes. Plant tolerance. QTL-type of resistance. Exploit genetic diversity of resistance present in wild relatives (only 10% is exploited). Plants to be studied (model and crop plants) Arabidopsis, tomato, potato. Rice, corn, wheat, barley. Medicago, Lotus. Poplar.
Conclusions of discussions on plant- pathogen interactions More research needed on viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes nematodes, vectors of pathogens. More microbial genomes (oomycetes, fungi, bacteria) need to be sequenced in order to understand pathogenic evolution. Compare life styles of necrotrophs, biotrophs, beneficial fungi and bacteria, saprophytes, endophytes. Discover new pathogenicity factors by comparative genomics, bio- informatics, functional analysis and identify their plant targets. Apply new scientific discoveries in breeding for durable resistance.
Challenges for future research on beneficial micro-organisms Analysis of molecular basis of interactions between plants and beneficial micro-organisms (perception and signaling). Comparative genomics of host and microbe: (i) compare symbiotic relationships of Lotus sp. with those of Populus sp.; (ii) compare mycorrhizal relations with those of biotrophic pathogens. Comparison of nitrogen fixation by micro-organisms in association with plants and by free-living micro-organisms. Analysis of energy costs for the host plant when interacting with different beneficial micro-organisms. Study of culturable and non-culturable micro-organisms in the rhizosphere (including metagenomics). Study ecology and evolution of endophytes.
Conclusions on beneficial plant-microbe interactions Reduce dependency on chemicals and fertilisers in crop production. Reduce energy costs in agriculture and forestry. Change crop production systems in relation to future needs and climate change. Improve soil quality including safeguarding biodiversity and soil organic matter levels.
Challenges for future research on multitrophic interactions between plants biotic agents Biology: Complex system trials, including evaluation of Arabidopsis mutants and other model or bridging species for translational genomics to crops. Metabolome and transcriptome analysis of plants interacting with different organisms including analyses of indirect resistance and signaling between hosts and biotic agents. Plant resistance to herbivores requires genomics of both herbivores and their natural enemies. Mechanisms and extent of signaling crosstalk needs to be elucidated. Ecology: Metabolomics is required to identify costs and benefits of plant defense in above- and below-ground multitrophic networks. Unraveling the defense strategies of wild plants against combinations of above- and below- ground biotic agents. Understanding ecological processes that are affected by trade-offs between growth and defense, or trade-offs between direct and indirect defense.
Challenges for future research on multitrophic interactions between plants biotic agents Evolutionary biology Evaluation of the fitness costs for plants and parasites with increased resistance and pathogenicity, respectively. Analyses of trade-offs between resistances to different types of disease. Evaluation of fitness costs in different environments and the contribution of these costs to variation in natural populations. Plant breeding Development of selection schemes for durability (resistance, yield, sustainability), Support plant breeding in the public sector. Plant breeding is the technology with the capacity to integrate advances in many aspects of plant performance simultaneously. Plant Breeding is the most cost-effective technology to develop crop varieties with reasonably stable performance in variable environments. It is now vital that plant breeding is revived in public-sector research and teaching to develop crop varieties with traits that are essential in years’ time (which would not be profitable to develop in a purely market-driven economy).
Conclusions of discussions on multitrophic interactions between plants and biotic agents Interactions between plants and multiple biotic agents are significant in crop plants. Selection of crop varieties with all-round resistance to diseases, pests and abiotic stresses is a challenge. Global climate change will make the environment and crop production more variable and less predictable There is concern about negative impacts of agriculture on the environment, but also climate change can have a negative impact on food production. Multidisciplinary research is required to find cost-effective methods for future sustainable food production.
Overall conclusions for national and European research agenda Set up European consortia supported by national and international agencies (FP7, ERA-PG) that combine efforts on: Joint sequencing of additional microbial genomes. Joint research on plant pathogen interactions. Joint research on plant-beneficial micro-organism interactions. Joint research on plant-multitrophic interactions.
Implementation of workshop Complete white paper on interactions between plants pathogenic, beneficial and multitrophic organisms. Disseminate white paper nationally and internationally to stimulate (financial) support for this subject. Incorporate new ideas for future research on this subject in the FP7 and ERA-PG survey. Establish consortia that perform trans-national research within FP7 or ERA-PG on this subject.