Presentation on theme: "Food, Land and People and World Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Food, Land and People and World Civilizations Debra Spielmaker Utah Agriculture in the Classroom
2Are these areas of development as important today? Which of the following was the most important advancement in early civilizations?Toolmaking (technology)Agriculture (farming, production & processing)Writing (communication)Are these areas of development as important today?What is agriculture?
3Why farm? Decline in the availability of wild foods Depletion of wild game less rewarding, easier to gather grainsIncreased technology for collecting, processing, and storing wild foodsIncreasing population, increase food production, better dietAdopt food production or die at the hand of those who have (soldiers & germs)
4Centers of origin of food production AreaDateDomesticatedPlantsAnimalsS.W. Asia8,500 B.C.Wheat, Pea,OliveSheep, GoatChina7,500 B.C.Rice (S.E. Asia), MilletPig, SilkwormMesoamerica3500 B.C.Corn,BeansSquashTurkeyAndes,AmazoniaPotatoManiocLlamaGuinea pigEastern United States2500 B.C.Sunflower,Goosefoot,StrawberryNoneA question mark indicates this may be an origin or influenced by the spread of food production.
7Major crop types around the ancient world AreaCereals & GrassesPulses/SeedsFiberRoots, Leaves, & TubersMelons & FruitsFertileCrescentemmer and einkorn wheat, barleypea, lentil, chickpeaflax------Muskmelon grape (Turkey)ChinaFoxtail millet, broom corn millet, (apple, alfalfa, Western Asia, Kazakhstan)soybean, adzuki bean, mung beanhempOrange (Southwestern Asia)Meso-americacornpole bean, scarlet runner bean, chocolatecotton, yuccaJicamaSquashes,tomatoSouth AmericaQuinoa (Andes Amazonia)lima bean, pole beancottonmanioc, sweet potato, potato, peanut, tobaccosquashesWest AfricaSorghum, millet, African riceCowpea (Black-Eye Pea)African yamswatermelon, bottle gourdIndiarice (Southeast Asia)Hyacinth bean, gram beanOnioncucumberEthiopiafinger milletcoffeeE. United Statesmaygrass, barley, knotweed, goosefootSunflowerJerusalem artichokeSquashes, strawberriesNew Guineasugar caneyams, taro
8Domestic Mammals Meat production plus! Evolution with humans milk transportationplowingwoolhidesEvolution with humansimmunity to diseases (measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, flu, pertussis, malaria)
9Mammalian Candidates for Domestication EurasiaSub-Saharan AfricaAmericasAustraliaCandidates7251241Domesticated species13Percentage of candidates domesticated18%0%4%Why some animals were not domesticated:Diet, bad feed conversion or carnivoresGrowth rate too slowProblems with captive breedingNasty dispositionTendency to panic
10Domestication of Animals SpeciesDates B.C.PlaceDog10,000Southwest Asia, China, North AmericaSheep8,000Southwest AsiaGoatPigChina, Southwest AsiaCow6,000Southwest Asia, IndiaHorse4,000UkraineDonkeyEgyptWater buffaloChinaTurkey3,500MesoamericaLlama / alpacaAndesBactrian camel2,500Central AsiaArabian camelArabia
11Fertile CrescentCivilization: cities, writing, empires, and agricultureMediterranean climateEasily domesticated plantsMost of the plants pollinate themselves
12Seeds of Change, most influential plants that changed the world. QuininePotatoSugarcaneCottonTeaWould the world have been without widespread black slavery if there had been no sugar and cotton plantations?What would Africa and the United States be like now?Would China have become a major world power in the 19th century if it had not been for the tea and opium trade?Would John F. Kennedy have become a U.S. President?
13Tomatoes, Potatoes, Corn and Beans Plants of the AmericasTomatoPotatoCornBeansChocolatePeppers
14Classroom Ideas Taste test of old world and new world foods Plan a menu using a particular civilization’s food.Show video, Foods of the Ancient World (from Utah AITC).Dissect a typical meal in the U.S. defining the foods’ origins.Locate on a world map the location of old and new world foods; discuss how they have been traded and how they changed societies and culture.
15Geography determines agriculture…which creates civilization and changes cultures. How important is agriculture today?Have our uses of agriculture changed?