Presentation on theme: "Food, Land and People and World Civilizations Debra Spielmaker Utah Agriculture in the Classroom."— Presentation transcript:
Food, Land and People and World Civilizations Debra Spielmaker Utah Agriculture in the Classroom
Which of the following was the most important advancement in early civilizations? Toolmaking (technology) Agriculture (farming, production & processing) Writing (communication) Are these areas of development as important today? What is agriculture?
Why farm? Decline in the availability of wild foods Depletion of wild game less rewarding, easier to gather grains Increased technology for collecting, processing, and storing wild foods Increasing population, increase food production, better diet Adopt food production or die at the hand of those who have (soldiers & germs)
Centers of origin of food production A question mark indicates this may be an origin or influenced by the spread of food production. Area Date Domesticated Plants Domesticated Animals S.W. Asia 8,500 B.C. Wheat, Pea, Olive Sheep, Goat China 7,500 B.C. Rice (S.E. Asia), Millet Pig, Silkworm Mesoamerica 3500 B.C. Corn,Beans Squash Turkey Andes, Amazonia 3500 B.C. Potato Manioc Llama Guinea pig Eastern United States 2500 B.C. Sunflower, Goosefoot, Strawberry None
Major crop types around the ancient world AreaCereals & GrassesPulses/SeedsFiberRoots, Leaves, & Tubers Melons & Fruits Fertile Crescent emmer and einkorn wheat, barley pea, lentil, chickpea flax------Muskmelon grape (Turkey) ChinaFoxtail millet, broom corn millet, (apple, alfalfa, Western Asia, Kazakhstan) soybean, adzuki bean, mung bean hemp------Orange (Southwestern Asia) Meso- america cornpole bean, scarlet runner bean, chocolate cotton, yucca JicamaSquashes, tomato South America Quinoa (Andes Amazonia)lima bean, pole bean cottonmanioc, sweet potato, potato, peanut, tobacco squashes West AfricaSorghum, millet, African rice Cowpea (Black- Eye Pea) African yamswatermelon, bottle gourd Indiarice (Southeast Asia)Hyacinth bean, gram bean flaxOnioncucumber Ethiopiafinger milletcoffee------ E. United States maygrass, barley, knotweed, goosefoot Sunflower------Jerusalem artichokeSquashes, strawberries New Guineasugar cane------ yams, taro------
Domestic Mammals Meat production plus! milk transportation plowing wool hides Evolution with humans immunity to diseases (measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, flu, pertussis, malaria)
Mammalian Candidates for Domestication EurasiaSub-Saharan Africa AmericasAustralia Candidates7251241 Domesticated species 13010 Percentage of candidates domesticated 18%0%4%0% Why some animals were not domesticated: Diet, bad feed conversion or carnivores Growth rate too slow Problems with captive breeding Nasty disposition Tendency to panic
Domestication of Animals SpeciesDates B.C.Place Dog10,000Southwest Asia, China, North America Sheep8,000Southwest Asia Goat8,000Southwest Asia Pig8,000China, Southwest Asia Cow6,000Southwest Asia, India Horse4,000Ukraine Donkey4,000Egypt Water buffalo4,000China Turkey3,500Mesoamerica Llama / alpaca3,500Andes Bactrian camel2,500Central Asia Arabian camel2,500Arabia
Fertile Crescent Civilization: cities, writing, empires, and agriculture Mediterranean climate Easily domesticated plants Most of the plants pollinate themselves
Seeds of Change, most influential plants that changed the world. Quinine Potato Sugarcane Cotton Tea Would the world have been without widespread black slavery if there had been no sugar and cotton plantations? What would Africa and the United States be like now? Would China have become a major world power in the 19 th century if it had not been for the tea and opium trade? Would John F. Kennedy have become a U.S. President?
Tomatoes, Potatoes, Corn and Beans Plants of the Americas Tomato Potato Corn Beans Chocolate Peppers Corn
Classroom Ideas Taste test of old world and new world foods Plan a menu using a particular civilization’s food. Show video, Foods of the Ancient World (from Utah AITC). Dissect a typical meal in the U.S. defining the foods’ origins. Locate on a world map the location of old and new world foods; discuss how they have been traded and how they changed societies and culture.
Geography determines agriculture…which creates civilization and changes cultures. How important is agriculture today? Have our uses of agriculture changed?