Presentation on theme: "Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Supported by: ETHICS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership College of Business."— Presentation transcript:
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Supported by: ETHICS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership College of Business Administration, CSULB
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Implemented in: SCED 475, Science Teaching, K-8 Required course for Multiple Subject Credential Program, CSULB
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Created by: William J. Straits, Assistant Professor Dept. of Science Education, CNSM, CSULB
Teaching Module Goal 1 Future primary grades teachers will learn how to screen the children’s literature they will use in their future classrooms for messages of prejudice (i.e., those biased against, race, gender, sexual preference, etc.) and to seek texts that offer science role- models for students that include examples of the great many women and people of color that have and continue to contribute to science.
Teaching Module Goal 2 Additionally, future upper-grades/middle school teachers learn how to engage their students in respectful discussion of controversial science/social issues such as stem cell research and global warming - helping students to understand the underlying the science processes and different points of view regarding these contemporary controversies
Teaching Module Components Discussing equity in science education - Selecting appropriate children’s literature Modeling a middle school activity - Engaging children in considerations of ethics in science. Developing successful science ethics instruction - Scaffolding for productive student discussions.
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Component 1
Selecting Children’s Literature Pre-read Show cover of Shel Silverstein’s, The Giving Tree. Ask, do any of you know this book? If you do, write a few sentences telling me what you think about it. If you don’t know this book, write a few sentences telling you what you expect from this book.
Selecting Children’s Literature Read aloud Read using female voice for for female character (tree) and age-specific, male voice for male character (boy). Use emotion to emphasize sadness in the female character.
Selecting Children’s Literature Post-read Have teacher-candidates imagine that they were a tree and write, from a tree’s perspective, what they think about the book.
Selecting Children’s Literature After sharing in groups - convene whole class discussion. Topics may include: Banned books Society’s disregard for nature Prejudice in children’s literature etc.
Selecting Children’s Literature Changes in textbooks - 1970 to today. Today’s texts are much more inclusive Teachers helped to bring about this change. Screening Children’s Literature
Screening Children’s Literature Stereotypes Tolkenism Who’s doing what? Where? Standards for success Relationships - family/friends Hero? Loaded words Adapted from: http://www.birchlane.davis.ca.us/library/10quick.htm
Screening Children’s Literature Most importantly think about your kids. Does a book promote or hinder a student’s connection to (science) learning? It is vitally important that students - ALL STUDENTS - have science role models.
Science Role Models Divide class into 5 groups. Ask each group to list as many scientists they can think of who are: African Americans Latinos/Latinas Pacific Islander/Asian Americans Females White Men
Science Role Models Teachers must be and provide these role models. Model enthusiasm for science learning. Use Children’s Literature to present other role models.
Science Role Models Read excerpts from, Girls Think of Everything. Exclude the name of the invention as you read. Have students raise hand when they think they know the invention. “What do all of these inventors have in common?” They are all women, creative people, problem- solvers, etc. Adapted from: Ansberry & Morgan, 2005
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Component 2
Engaging Students in Considerations of Ethics in Science Host a Peanut Pageant Each student is given a peanut, decorating materials, and a “Contestant Fact Sheet.” After “pageant” segue into exploration of the anatomy of seeds. “One of the most important parts of the seed is the cotyledons. To see them you have to dissect your peanut…” Adapted from: Straits & Grizzard, 2007
What We Think - Our Science Controversies Create with your group members a comprehensive list of ethical, science issues that face our society today. Then identify the top 5 issues that are important for today’s your adolescents to be thinking about.
Ethics in Science Topics for Research Testing on Animals Which purposes are justified? Education Biomedical Research Cosmetics Which organisms may be used? Plants vs. animals Invertebrates vs. vertebrates Mammals vs. non-mammals Other ethical issues in science Cloning Genetic profiling Stem cell research Genetically modified organisms Overpopulation Pollution and waste Deforestation Gloabal warming Alternative energy
Ethics in Science Cross-Curricular Connections Language Arts Debates Persuasive Writing Letters to organizations, corporations, and political representatives Information Arts Research of ethical issue(s) Critical and careful use of Internet sources Mathematics Calculating the extent of animal sacrifice for specific purposes Social Studies Historical context of animal testing Uses of animals in other cultures Ethics as a cultural phenomenon
Engaged Students Samples of sixth grade students’ written work
I decided to research products that I use everyday to see if they animal test. Animal testing costs over 136 billion dollars a year and kills 25 to 50 billion animals also a year…. The product I use most is Crest toothpaste made by Procter and Gamble…. I found that most of all Procter and Gamble products are animal tested…. After I researched the products I use I think I will change some of the products I use and I am now inspired to make a change and help stop animal testing. I now strongly disagree with animal testing and dissection for all purposes except for medical use. I never really paid attention to the products that I buy and animal testing until now.
The fact is that we kill millions of plants, animals, and organisms every day. By breathing you are killing microscopic organisms that float in the air. If you walk outside you are probably going to step on a blade of grass, an insect, or on countless other things. The sad truth is that we can not live without killing something. Which is worse to kill a bug by stepping on it, or to kill a bunny, so that you could make a scientific breakthrough, that could save millions of lives? It all depends on where you draw the line.
I for one think that the “treat others how you wish to be treated” statement applies to humans and animals alike. I also believe it is wrong to kill or harm animals just for the sake of our own beauty…. The next time you buy something make sure you are not paying for animals to be hurt. Remember you have the power to stop it. You can go with the flow and not think twice or you can save lives. Their fate is in your hands. You decide between life or... Death. Do you care?
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Component 3
Science & Ethics Discussions Case Study Approach Sex and Vaccination, Zavrel & Herreid 2008 Reading/Discussion Worksheet How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion, Chowning 2005
Strategies for leading discussions Interrupted Case Method Gather information, respond to questions, engage in discussion Get more information, additional questions, and further discussion, etc. Structured Controversy Gather information, make case for/against an issue Switch roles, present case against/for the issue Role Play play the role of a stakeholder in a: Panel Discussion Mock Court
Key Components Background Information Multiple Perspectives Protocols for Discussion Meaningful Follow-up
Nat’l Science Teachers Assn. Journals The Science Teacher Journal of College Science Teaching Books Clones, Cats, and Chemicals Start with a Story Decisions Based on Science Events-based Curricula Oil Spill Earthquake And several others
Other Resources Online www.bioethics.net www.onlineethics.org Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute Biological Sciences Curriculum Study In the News At the Movies
Our Science Controversies Energy Health Environment Sex/Reproduction
ENERGY Solar Energy Hybrid Vehicles Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Development Energy Conservation Nuclear Waste
HEALTH Drug use Organic Foods Euthanasia Obesity Smoking Cure for Cancer AIDS
ENVIRONMENT Pesticides Deforestation Water Conservation Global Warming Habitat Protection Greenhouse Effect Pollution Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Evaluation
Evaluation of Ethics Module Pre/Post survey During the 1st and 14th weeks of the semester students were asked: Describe the criteria you might use in selecting children’s literature to incorporate into your science instruction. Which topics are important to include in the K-8 science curriculum?
Evaluation of Ethics Module Pre-instruction survey No students offered considerations of prejudice as a criteria for reviewing children’s literature Post-instruction survey 9 (of 22) students added consideration of “[Teachers should] make sure [selected children’s books] are inclusive of all cultures and gender.” “Diverse people [should be represented] in [selected children’s] books.” “[A teacher should] look for literature that illustrates multi-cultural kids.”
Evaluation of Ethics Module Pre-instruction survey No students stated that contemporary, ethical/ controversial science topics were important to include in the K-8 science curriculum. Post-instruction survey 10 (of 22) students included contemporary, controversial science topics. Such as: “Ethical issues that are grade appropriate.” “Energy conservation, Global warming”
Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Resources
References Ansberry, K. R. & Morgan, E. (2005). Brainstorms: From Idea to Invention. In, Picture Perfect Science Lessons: Using Children’s Books to Guide Inquiry. (pp. 279-293). Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. Chowning, J. T. (2005). How to have a successful science and ethics discussion. The Science Teacher, 72(8), 46-50. Straits, W. & Grizzard, G. (2007). The Peanut Pageant: Engaging Students in Contemporary Science Controversies. The Green Teacher, 81, 10-13. Zavrel, E. & Herreid, C. F. (2008). Sex and Vaccination. Journal of College Science Teaching, 74-78.
Resources Clarkeburn, H. Downe, J. R. & Matthew, B. (2002). Impact of an ethics programme in a life science curriculum. Teaching in Higher Education, 7(1), 65-79. Pirofski, K. I. (2001). Race, gender, and disability in today’s children’s literature. Retrived Oct. 30, 2008, from EdChange Multicultural Pavillion Web site: http://www.edchange.org multicultural/papers/literature2.html The National Academy of Engineering (2006). Part 1: Creating Your Own Ethics-in-Science Lessons. Retrived Oct. 27, 2008, from http://www.onlineethics.org/ CMS/edu/ precol/ scienceclass/lessonplans/part1.aspx Zeidler, D. L., Sadler, T. D., & Howes, E. V. (2005). Beyond STS: A research-based framework for socioscientific issues in education. Science Education, 89(3), 357-377.
Children’s Literature Utilized in Module Silverstein, S. (1964). The Giving Tree. New York, NY: Harper Collins. Thimmesh, C. (2002). Girls Think of Everything: Stories of Ingenious Inventions by Women. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.