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Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Supported by: ETHICS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership College of Business.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Supported by: ETHICS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership College of Business."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Supported by: ETHICS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership College of Business Administration, CSULB

2 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Implemented in: SCED 475, Science Teaching, K-8 Required course for Multiple Subject Credential Program, CSULB

3 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Created by: William J. Straits, Assistant Professor Dept. of Science Education, CNSM, CSULB

4 Teaching Module Goal 1  Future primary grades teachers will learn how to screen the children’s literature they will use in their future classrooms for messages of prejudice (i.e., those biased against, race, gender, sexual preference, etc.) and to seek texts that offer science role- models for students that include examples of the great many women and people of color that have and continue to contribute to science.

5 Teaching Module Goal 2  Additionally, future upper-grades/middle school teachers learn how to engage their students in respectful discussion of controversial science/social issues such as stem cell research and global warming - helping students to understand the underlying the science processes and different points of view regarding these contemporary controversies

6 Teaching Module Components  Discussing equity in science education - Selecting appropriate children’s literature  Modeling a middle school activity - Engaging children in considerations of ethics in science.  Developing successful science ethics instruction - Scaffolding for productive student discussions.

7 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Component 1

8 Selecting Children’s Literature  Pre-read  Show cover of Shel Silverstein’s, The Giving Tree. Ask, do any of you know this book? If you do, write a few sentences telling me what you think about it. If you don’t know this book, write a few sentences telling you what you expect from this book.

9 Selecting Children’s Literature  Read aloud  Read using female voice for for female character (tree) and age-specific, male voice for male character (boy). Use emotion to emphasize sadness in the female character.

10 Selecting Children’s Literature  Post-read  Have teacher-candidates imagine that they were a tree and write, from a tree’s perspective, what they think about the book.

11 Selecting Children’s Literature  After sharing in groups - convene whole class discussion. Topics may include:  Banned books  Society’s disregard for nature  Prejudice in children’s literature  etc.

12 Selecting Children’s Literature  Changes in textbooks - 1970 to today.  Today’s texts are much more inclusive  Teachers helped to bring about this change.  Screening Children’s Literature

13 Screening Children’s Literature  Stereotypes  Tolkenism  Who’s doing what? Where?  Standards for success  Relationships - family/friends  Hero?  Loaded words Adapted from:

14 Screening Children’s Literature  Most importantly think about your kids.  Does a book promote or hinder a student’s connection to (science) learning?  It is vitally important that students - ALL STUDENTS - have science role models.

15 Science Role Models  Divide class into 5 groups. Ask each group to list as many scientists they can think of who are:  African Americans  Latinos/Latinas  Pacific Islander/Asian Americans  Females  White Men

16 Science Role Models  Teachers must be and provide these role models.  Model enthusiasm for science learning.  Use Children’s Literature to present other role models.

17 Science Role Models  Read excerpts from, Girls Think of Everything.  Exclude the name of the invention as you read.  Have students raise hand when they think they know the invention.  “What do all of these inventors have in common?”  They are all women, creative people, problem- solvers, etc. Adapted from: Ansberry & Morgan, 2005

18 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Component 2

19 Engaging Students in Considerations of Ethics in Science  Host a Peanut Pageant  Each student is given a peanut, decorating materials, and a “Contestant Fact Sheet.”  After “pageant” segue into exploration of the anatomy of seeds.  “One of the most important parts of the seed is the cotyledons. To see them you have to dissect your peanut…” Adapted from: Straits & Grizzard, 2007

20 What We Think - Our Science Controversies  Create with your group members a comprehensive list of ethical, science issues that face our society today.  Then identify the top 5 issues that are important for today’s your adolescents to be thinking about.

21 Ethics in Science Topics for Research Testing on Animals  Which purposes are justified?  Education  Biomedical Research  Cosmetics  Which organisms may be used?  Plants vs. animals  Invertebrates vs. vertebrates  Mammals vs. non-mammals Other ethical issues in science  Cloning  Genetic profiling  Stem cell research  Genetically modified organisms  Overpopulation  Pollution and waste  Deforestation  Gloabal warming  Alternative energy

22 Ethics in Science Cross-Curricular Connections  Language Arts  Debates  Persuasive Writing  Letters to organizations, corporations, and political representatives  Information Arts  Research of ethical issue(s)  Critical and careful use of Internet sources Mathematics  Calculating the extent of animal sacrifice for specific purposes  Social Studies  Historical context of animal testing  Uses of animals in other cultures  Ethics as a cultural phenomenon

23 Engaged Students Samples of sixth grade students’ written work

24 I decided to research products that I use everyday to see if they animal test. Animal testing costs over 136 billion dollars a year and kills 25 to 50 billion animals also a year…. The product I use most is Crest toothpaste made by Procter and Gamble…. I found that most of all Procter and Gamble products are animal tested…. After I researched the products I use I think I will change some of the products I use and I am now inspired to make a change and help stop animal testing. I now strongly disagree with animal testing and dissection for all purposes except for medical use. I never really paid attention to the products that I buy and animal testing until now.

25 The fact is that we kill millions of plants, animals, and organisms every day. By breathing you are killing microscopic organisms that float in the air. If you walk outside you are probably going to step on a blade of grass, an insect, or on countless other things. The sad truth is that we can not live without killing something. Which is worse to kill a bug by stepping on it, or to kill a bunny, so that you could make a scientific breakthrough, that could save millions of lives? It all depends on where you draw the line.

26 I for one think that the “treat others how you wish to be treated” statement applies to humans and animals alike. I also believe it is wrong to kill or harm animals just for the sake of our own beauty…. The next time you buy something make sure you are not paying for animals to be hurt. Remember you have the power to stop it. You can go with the flow and not think twice or you can save lives. Their fate is in your hands. You decide between life or... Death. Do you care?

27 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Component 3

28 Science & Ethics Discussions  Strategies  Resources  Topics

29 Science & Ethics Discussions  Case Study Approach  Sex and Vaccination, Zavrel & Herreid 2008  Reading/Discussion Worksheet  How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion, Chowning 2005

30 Strategies for leading discussions  Interrupted Case Method  Gather information, respond to questions, engage in discussion  Get more information, additional questions, and further discussion, etc.  Structured Controversy  Gather information, make case for/against an issue  Switch roles, present case against/for the issue  Role Play  play the role of a stakeholder in a:  Panel Discussion  Mock Court

31 Key Components  Background Information  Multiple Perspectives  Protocols for Discussion  Meaningful Follow-up

32 Nat’l Science Teachers Assn.  Journals  The Science Teacher  Journal of College Science Teaching  Books  Clones, Cats, and Chemicals  Start with a Story  Decisions Based on Science  Events-based Curricula  Oil Spill  Earthquake  And several others

33 Other Resources  Online    Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute  Biological Sciences Curriculum Study  In the News  At the Movies

34 Our Science Controversies  Energy  Health  Environment  Sex/Reproduction

35 ENERGY  Solar Energy  Hybrid Vehicles  Nuclear Weapons  Nuclear Development  Energy Conservation  Nuclear Waste

36 HEALTH  Drug use  Organic Foods  Euthanasia  Obesity  Smoking  Cure for Cancer  AIDS

37 ENVIRONMENT  Pesticides  Deforestation  Water Conservation  Global Warming  Habitat Protection  Greenhouse Effect  Pollution  Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle

38 SEX/REPRODUCTION  In vitro fertilization  STDs  Genetic Screening  Fertility Treatments  Stem Cells  Cloning  Abortion

39 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Evaluation

40 Evaluation of Ethics Module  Pre/Post survey  During the 1st and 14th weeks of the semester students were asked:  Describe the criteria you might use in selecting children’s literature to incorporate into your science instruction.  Which topics are important to include in the K-8 science curriculum?

41 Evaluation of Ethics Module  Pre-instruction survey  No students offered considerations of prejudice as a criteria for reviewing children’s literature  Post-instruction survey  9 (of 22) students added consideration of  “[Teachers should] make sure [selected children’s books] are inclusive of all cultures and gender.”  “Diverse people [should be represented] in [selected children’s] books.”  “[A teacher should] look for literature that illustrates multi-cultural kids.”

42 Evaluation of Ethics Module  Pre-instruction survey  No students stated that contemporary, ethical/ controversial science topics were important to include in the K-8 science curriculum.  Post-instruction survey  10 (of 22) students included contemporary, controversial science topics. Such as:  “Ethical issues that are grade appropriate.”  “Energy conservation, Global warming”

43 Ethics in Science A Guide for Future Science Teachers Module Resources

44 References  Ansberry, K. R. & Morgan, E. (2005). Brainstorms: From Idea to Invention. In, Picture Perfect Science Lessons: Using Children’s Books to Guide Inquiry. (pp. 279-293). Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.  Chowning, J. T. (2005). How to have a successful science and ethics discussion. The Science Teacher, 72(8), 46-50.  Straits, W. & Grizzard, G. (2007). The Peanut Pageant: Engaging Students in Contemporary Science Controversies. The Green Teacher, 81, 10-13.  Zavrel, E. & Herreid, C. F. (2008). Sex and Vaccination. Journal of College Science Teaching, 74-78.

45 Resources  Clarkeburn, H. Downe, J. R. & Matthew, B. (2002). Impact of an ethics programme in a life science curriculum. Teaching in Higher Education, 7(1), 65-79.  Pirofski, K. I. (2001). Race, gender, and disability in today’s children’s literature. Retrived Oct. 30, 2008, from EdChange Multicultural Pavillion Web site: multicultural/papers/literature2.html  The National Academy of Engineering (2006). Part 1: Creating Your Own Ethics-in-Science Lessons. Retrived Oct. 27, 2008, from CMS/edu/ precol/ scienceclass/lessonplans/part1.aspx  Zeidler, D. L., Sadler, T. D., & Howes, E. V. (2005). Beyond STS: A research-based framework for socioscientific issues in education. Science Education, 89(3), 357-377.

46 Additional Websites        

47 Children’s Literature Utilized in Module  Silverstein, S. (1964). The Giving Tree. New York, NY: Harper Collins.  Thimmesh, C. (2002). Girls Think of Everything: Stories of Ingenious Inventions by Women. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.

48 Thank you

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