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The Scientific Revolution. The Philosophical Medieval View Aristotle & Ptolemy from Greece supported the Aristotle & Ptolemy from Greece supported the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Revolution. The Philosophical Medieval View Aristotle & Ptolemy from Greece supported the Aristotle & Ptolemy from Greece supported the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scientific Revolution

2 The Philosophical Medieval View Aristotle & Ptolemy from Greece supported the Aristotle & Ptolemy from Greece supported the Geocentric theory: Earth was an unmoving object located at the center of the universe- the sun and planets moved around the Earth Religion guided views too: Christianity taught that God had placed Earth at the center of the universe. Religion guided views too: Christianity taught that God had placed Earth at the center of the universe.

3 Geocentric Theory Geocentric Theory

4 Aristotle (384BC – 322BC) Greek philosopher, made important contributions on physical subjects. Greek philosopher, made important contributions on physical subjects. Developed geocentric model. Developed geocentric model. Philosophies had long- lasting effects on philosophical theories. Philosophies had long- lasting effects on philosophical theories.

5 Claudius Ptolemy (85AD – 165AD) Greek astronomers, mathematician & geographers Greek astronomers, mathematician & geographers Expanded Aristotle’s geocentric theory. Expanded Aristotle’s geocentric theory. Introduced trigonometry methods. Introduced trigonometry methods.

6 Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) Sun-centered universe – heliocentric theory Sun-centered universe – heliocentric theory Earth is no different than any other planet Earth is no different than any other planet On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) perfect-heaven-put-sun-at-center perfect-heaven-put-sun-at-center perfect-heaven-put-sun-at-center perfect-heaven-put-sun-at-center

7 Heliocentric Theory Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Models

8 Johannes Kepler ( ) Uses experiments & observations Uses experiments & observations Planetary movement is a mathematical formula Planetary movement is a mathematical formula Planets move around the Sun in elliptical orbits NOT circles Planets move around the Sun in elliptical orbits NOT circles Confirms Copernicus ideas Confirms Copernicus ideas

9 Galileo Galilei ( ) GALILEO – designs 1 st telescope w/lens & sees movement of stars & moons (similar to the movement of the planets) GALILEO – designs 1 st telescope w/lens & sees movement of stars & moons (similar to the movement of the planets) Church believes heavens are fixed, unmoving & earth is central  they are furious w/Galileo! Church believes heavens are fixed, unmoving & earth is central  they are furious w/Galileo! Galileo accused of heresy (crimes against Church)  1633 brought to trial before Catholic Inquisition & he recants his statements Galileo accused of heresy (crimes against Church)  1633 brought to trial before Catholic Inquisition & he recants his statements Brainpop

10 Isaac Newton ( ) Universal law of motion  every object in universe attracts every other object Universal law of motion  every object in universe attracts every other object Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) - Explained gravity (what goes up must come down) Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) - Explained gravity (what goes up must come down) Universe is a giant clock- all parts work together but God set clock in motion. Universe is a giant clock- all parts work together but God set clock in motion.

11 Andreas Vesalius ( ) First to dissect human bodies (even though a disapproved practice) First to dissect human bodies (even though a disapproved practice) Wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543) Wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543) His published observations included detailed drawings of human organs, bones & muscle. His published observations included detailed drawings of human organs, bones & muscle.

12 William Harvey ( ) Published On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) Published On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals (1628) Showed heart acted as a pump to circulate blood throughout body Showed heart acted as a pump to circulate blood throughout body

13 Francis Bacon ( ) English politician & writer with an interest in science. English politician & writer with an interest in science. Criticized ancient philosophers on how they arrived at conclusions. Criticized ancient philosophers on how they arrived at conclusions. Urged scientists to experiment in order to arrive at conclusions Urged scientists to experiment in order to arrive at conclusions Developed Scientific Method Developed Scientific Method

14 Rene Descartes ( ) French scientist & mathematician. French scientist & mathematician. Developed analytical geometry (links both algebra & geometry) Developed analytical geometry (links both algebra & geometry) Developments provided new tools for scientific research. Developments provided new tools for scientific research.

15 The Enlightenment --- Age of Reason

16 What was it? Emerged out of Scientific Revolution & ended in French Revolution Emerged out of Scientific Revolution & ended in French Revolution Spokesmen = Rising Middle Class Spokesmen = Rising Middle Class Paris = Center of Enlightenment Paris = Center of Enlightenment Search for new laws/ways to govern humans Search for new laws/ways to govern humans

17 Key Ideas Distrust of Tradition and Religion Distrust of Tradition and Religion Scientific method could be applied to society as well Scientific method could be applied to society as well Man is naturally good Man is naturally good

18 The World of the Old Regime Built on tradition Built on tradition World of hierarchy, privilege and inequality World of hierarchy, privilege and inequality Allied with the Church Allied with the Church Challenged by supporters of the Enlightenment Challenged by supporters of the Enlightenment

19 Conflict with the Capitalistic Middle Class Size and increasing power of the Middle Class Size and increasing power of the Middle Class New notion of wealth w/mercantilism New notion of wealth w/mercantilism Tension and discord created by the Middle Class Tension and discord created by the Middle Class

20 The Philosophes (Philosophers) 18 th century French intellectuals 18 th century French intellectuals Truth through reason Truth through reason Natural laws – natural is good and reasonable Natural laws – natural is good and reasonable Happiness – belief in natural laws leads to happiness Happiness – belief in natural laws leads to happiness Progress – for society (can be perfected) Progress – for society (can be perfected) Liberties – people should be free Liberties – people should be free

21 The Problem of Censorship The attempt of the Old Regime to control new thinking The attempt of the Old Regime to control new thinking Publishers and writers hounded by censors Publishers and writers hounded by censors Over 1000 booksellers and authors imprisoned in the Bastille in the early 1700’s Over 1000 booksellers and authors imprisoned in the Bastille in the early 1700’s

22 Famous Enlightenment Thinkers

23 Thomas Hobbes (1588 –1679) Wrote Leviathan (1651) Wrote Leviathan (1651) Convinced that all humans are wicked and evil Convinced that all humans are wicked and evil Humans exist in a primitive state and give consent to the government for self- protection Humans exist in a primitive state and give consent to the government for self- protection Absolute monarchies Absolute monarchies

24 John Locke ( ) People learn from experience People learn from experience Favored self-gov’t, people rule Favored self-gov’t, people rule Natural rights: life, liberty, property Natural rights: life, liberty, property gov’t protects these rights and if not, people overthrow gov’t gov’t protects these rights and if not, people overthrow gov’t Wrote Two Treaties on Government (1690) Wrote Two Treaties on Government (1690) Inspired American Revolution Inspired American Revolution

25 Francois Arouet Voltaire ( ) Admired English gov’t Admired English gov’t Mocked laws of France and religion Mocked laws of France and religion There should be separation of church and state There should be separation of church and state “Ecrasez l’infame” – “Crush the evil thing” “Ecrasez l’infame” – “Crush the evil thing”

26 Baron de Montesquieu ( ) The Spirit of the Laws (1748) The Spirit of the Laws (1748) “Power should be a check to power” – this is beginnings of separation of powers “Power should be a check to power” – this is beginnings of separation of powers Influence in the US – legislative, executive, judicial Influence in the US – legislative, executive, judicial

27 Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( ) Individual freedom Individual freedom “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Direct democracy Direct democracy Wrote “The Social Contract” in which he stated that Gov’t is a contract b/w people and rulers Wrote “The Social Contract” in which he stated that Gov’t is a contract b/w people and rulers

28 The Role of the Salon – Spreading Ideas Wealthy women of Paris hosted social gatherings known as salons Wealthy women of Paris hosted social gatherings known as salons Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists gathered to share ideas Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists gathered to share ideas Madame Geoffrin – most influential salon hostess Madame Geoffrin – most influential salon hostess

29 Diderot’s Encyclopedia Encyclopedia (28 volumes) Encyclopedia (28 volumes) Collected articles regarding all topics: science, politics, economics, slavery, human rights, religion, etc. Collected articles regarding all topics: science, politics, economics, slavery, human rights, religion, etc. Critics were outraged & Pope threatened to excommunicate Catholics who read it! Critics were outraged & Pope threatened to excommunicate Catholics who read it! Translations helped spread enlightenment ideas across Europe Translations helped spread enlightenment ideas across Europe

30 Art and Literature Enlightenment is reflected in the arts – music, literature, painting, and architecture Enlightenment is reflected in the arts – music, literature, painting, and architecture Baroque – grand and ornate TO Baroque – grand and ornate TO Neoclassical – simple and elegant, Classical music – Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven Neoclassical – simple and elegant, Classical music – Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven Development of novels Development of novels

31 Enlightened Despotism Enlightened Despotism The manner of political reform – monarchs who embraced new ideas& reforms The manner of political reform – monarchs who embraced new ideas& reforms Frederick the Great of Prussia Frederick the Great of Prussia Catherine the Great of Russia Catherine the Great of Russia Joseph II of Austria Joseph II of Austria

32 Impact of Enlightenment Ideas led to people challenging long held ideas about society Ideas led to people challenging long held ideas about society Political philosophies of the Enlightenment inspired American and French revolutions in the 1800s Political philosophies of the Enlightenment inspired American and French revolutions in the 1800s


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