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5 The Organization of Cellular Genomes Complexity of Genomes Chromosomes and Chromatin Sequences of Genomes Bioinformatics.

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Presentation on theme: "5 The Organization of Cellular Genomes Complexity of Genomes Chromosomes and Chromatin Sequences of Genomes Bioinformatics."— Presentation transcript:

1 5 The Organization of Cellular Genomes Complexity of Genomes Chromosomes and Chromatin Sequences of Genomes Bioinformatics

2 5 Introduction to Cellular Genomes The sequences of many cellular genomes are known:  Bacteria  Yeast  Drosophila  Many Plants and Animals  Humans The development of gene cloning has enabled scientists to dissect complex eukaryotic genomes and probe the functions of eukaryotic genes.

3 5 The Complexity of Eukaryotic Genomes The genomes of most eukaryotes are larger and more complex than those of prokaryotes. The presence of large amounts of noncoding sequences is a general property of the genomes of complex eukaryotes. Figure 5.1 Genome Structure

4 5 Introns and Exons A gene is a segment of DNA that is expressed to yield a functional product. Spacer sequences are long DNA sequences that lie between genes. Exons are segments of coding sequence. Introns (or intervening sequences) are segments of noncoding sequences. Figure 5.2. The structure of eukaryotic genes

5 5 Introns and Exons Adenovirus is a useful model for studies of gene expression. RNA splicing is the joining of exons in a precursor molecule. Figure 5.3. Identification of introns in adenovirus RNA.

6 5.4 The mouse b-globin gene Electron microscopic analysis of RNA-DNA hybrids. Nucleotide sequencing of cloned genomic DNAs and cDNAs Conclusion: The coding region of the mouse β-globin gene is interrupted by two introns that are removed from the mRNA by splicing.

7 5 Introns and Exons A kilobase, or kb, of genomic DNA is one thousand nucleotides or nucleotide base pairs. Most introns do not specify the synthesis of a cellular product.

8 5.5 Alternative splicing Alternative splicing occurs when exons of a gene are joined in different combinations, resulting in the synthesis of different proteins from the same gene.

9 5 Repetitive DNA Sequences A large portion of complex eukaryotic genomes consist of highly repeated noncoding DNA sequences. The sequencing of complete genomes has identified several types of highly repeated sequences.

10 5 Repetitive DNA Sequences A simple-sequence repeat consists of tandem arrays of up to thousands of copies of short sequences. Satellite DNAs are simple-sequence repetitive DNA with a buoyant density differing from the bulk of genomic DNA. The two most common types of Interspersed Elements or families of highly repeated retrotransposons in mammalian genomes. :  Short interspersed elements, or SINEs,  Long interspersed elements, or LINEs, are two families of highly repeated retrotransposons in mammalian genomes.

11 5 Repetitive DNA Sequences Retrotransposons are transposable elements that move via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Retrovirus-like elements are transposons that are structurally similar to retroviruses. DNA transposons are transposable elements that move via DNA intermediates. Some interspersed repetitive elements may help regulate gene expression, but most appear not to make a useful contribution to the cell.

12 5 Gene Duplication and Pseudogenes A gene family is a group of related genes. Gene families are thought to have arisen by duplication of an original ancestral gene, with different members of the family then diverging as a consequence of mutations during evolution. Figure 5.9. Globin gene families

13 5 Gene Duplication and Pseudogenes Pseudogenes are nonfunctional gene copies that represent evolutionary relics that increase the size of eukaryotic genomes without making a functional genetic contribution. Genes can be duplicated by reverse transcription of an mRNA, followed by integration of the cDNA copy into a new chromosomal site. Figure 5.10. Formation of a processed pseudogene

14 5 The Composition of Higher Eukaryotic Genomes The genomes of higher animals, such as humans, are approximately 20–30 times larger than those of C. elegans and Drosophila. The increased size of the genomes of higher eukaryotes is due far more to the presence of large amounts of repetitive sequences and introns than to an increased number of genes. Although the numbers of and sizes of chromosomes vary considerably between different species, their basic structure is the same in all eukaryotes.

15 5 Chromatin The complexes between eukaryotic DNA and proteins are called chromatin, which typically contain about twice as much protein as DNA. Histones are small proteins containing a high proportion of the basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, that facilitate binding to the negatively charged DNA molecule.

16 5.11 The organization of chromatin in nucleosomes A nucleosome is the basic structural unit of chromatin. Nucleosome core particles contain 145 base pairs of DNA wrapped around an octamer consisting of two molecules each of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.

17 5 Chromatin A chromatosome is a chromatin subunit that consists of 166 base pairs of DNA wrapped around the histone core and is held in place by H1, a linker histone. Figure 5.12. Structure of a chromatosome

18 5.13 Chromatin fibers

19 5 Chromatin Euchromatin is decondensed transcriptionally active interphase chromatin. Heterochromatin is condensed, transcriptionally inactive chromatin, and it contains highly repeated DNA sequences. Figure 5.14. Interphase Chromosome Figure 5.15 Chromatin condensation during mitosis

20 5 Centromeres The centromere is a specialized region of the chromosome that plays a critical role in ensuring the correct distribution of duplicated chromosomes. Centromere DNA sequences were initially defined in yeasts. Plasmids that contain functional centromeres segregate like chromosomes and are equally distributed to daughter cells following mitosis. Figure 5.18. Chromosomes during mitosis

21 5.19 The centromere of a metaphase chromosome A kinetochore is a specific DNA sequence to which a number of centromere-associated proteins bind.

22 5.20 Assay of a centromere in yeast

23 5.21 Centromeres of S. cerevisiae, S. pombe, and Drosophila melanogaster

24 5 Telomeres Telomeres are the sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The telomere DNA sequences of a variety of eukaryotes are similar, consisting of repeats of a simple-sequence DNA containing clusters of G residues on one strand.

25 5.22 Structure of a telomere The repeated sequences of telomere DNA of some organisms, including humans, form loops at the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is a special enzyme that uses reverse transcriptase activity to replicate telomeric DNA sequences.

26 5 The Sequences of Complete Genomes The complete nucleotide sequences of both the human genome and the genomes of several model organisms, including E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and the mouse, have been analyzed.

27 5 Prokaryotic Genomes The first complete sequence of a cellular genome was that of the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. A megabase, or Mb, is one million nucleotides or nucleotide base pairs. Open-reading frames are long stretches of nucleotide sequence that can encode polypeptides. The H. influenzae genome has six copies of rRNA genes, 54 different tRNA genes, and 1743 potential protein-coding regions.

28 5 The Yeast Genome Yeasts are model eukaryotic cells that can be studied much more readily than the cells of mammals or other higher eukaryotes. Yeasts have a high density of protein-coding sequences, similar to bacterial genomes. Yeasts are particularly amenable to functional analyses of unknown genes because of the facility with which normal chromosomal loci can be inactivated by homologous recombination with cloned sequences.

29 5 The Human Genome The human genome is distributed among 24 chromosomes, each containing between 45 and 280 Mb of DNA.

30 5.30 Fluorescence in situ hybridization Fluorescence in situ hybridization, or FISH, localizes genes using probes labeled with fluorescent dyes to chromosomes.

31 5.31 Sequence of human chromosome 1 The sequenced euchromatin portion of the human genome encompasses approximately 2.9 ´ 10 6 kb of DNA. The human genome consists of only 20,000–25,000 genes, which is not much larger than the number of genes in simpler animals like C. elegans and Drosophila.

32 5 The Genomes of Other Vertebrates A large and growing number of vertebrate genomes have been sequenced in the last few years, including the genomes of fish, chickens, and other mammals. The mammalian genomes that have been sequenced, in addition to the human genome, include the genomes of the mouse, rat, dog, and chimpanzee. The sequence of the genome of the chimpanzee, our nearest evolutionary relative, is expected to help pinpoint the unique features of our genome that distinguish humans from other primates.

33 5 Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Bioinformatics, a field of science that lies at the interface between biology and computer science, is focused on developing the computational methods needed to analyze and extract useful biological information from the sequence of billions of bases of DNA. Systems biology seeks a quantitative understanding of the integrated dynamic behavior of complex biological systems and processes.

34 5 Systematic Screens of Gene Function Large-scale screens based on RNA interference (RNAi) are being used to systematically dissect gene function in a variety of organisms, including Drosophila, C. elegans, and mammalian cells in culture. In RNAi screens, double-stranded RNAs are used to induce degradation of the homologous mRNAs in cells.

35 5.34 Conservation of functional gene regulatory elements Regulation of Gene Expression Genome sequences can, in principle, reveal not only the protein-coding sequences of genes, but also the regulatory elements that control gene expression. A variety of computational approaches are being used to characterize functional regulatory elements, based on the assumption that functionally important sequences are conserved in evolution.

36 5 Variation among Individuals and Genomic Medicine Variations between individual genomes underlie differences in physical and mental characteristics, including susceptibility to many diseases. The genomes of two unrelated people, which differ in about one of every thousand bases, are in the form of single base changes known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fig.5.35. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human chromosome 1

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