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Topic 2 The World of Plants

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1 Topic 2 The World of Plants
Standard Grade Biology Topic 2 The World of Plants Revision presentation for Mammalian Physiology and behaviour. Recap on main points of specification, and on what pupils should still be able to recall from KS3 and KS4 Next slide to summarise the topic before going into detail on each one.

2 B- Growing plants (Pollination, Fertilisation, Asexual reproduction)
World of Plants is divided into: A- Introducing plants B- Growing plants (Pollination, Fertilisation, Asexual reproduction) C- Making food

3 The life cycle of a plant
There are 7 stages in the life cycle of a plant. seed / fruit Formation seed dispersal fertilisation pollination germination flower formation development

4 Seed Structure Parts are: Seed coat Forms a tough protective layer
Embryo shoot Embryo – grows into plant SQA-List the functions of 3 main parts of the seed of a dicotyledon ie. seed coat, embryo, food store Food store Provides the embryo plant with food. Embryo root

5 Seed Dissection Using a scalpel, carefully dissect your seed in half lengthways. Draw a diagram of what you can see. Identify the parts, and label your drawing (workbook p13).

6 Seeds

7 Investigation: Germination
This is an Exam Board Investigation that makes up part of your Practical Abilities grade (20% of finals) Planning may be done in small groups but after this you must work on your own Write in your Investigation booklet.

8 What affects germination?
3Bio2 Brainstorm 16/03/07 Spacing / number of seeds Humidity / water volume Type of seeds Size of seeds Type of soil / mass Temperature Depth of planting Gases / oxygen levels Measure by % germination after set time

9 Germination and Temperature
Example of results table. Also draw a graph. What conclusions can you draw from your experiment? How could you have improved it? Temperature oC No. of seeds No. of seeds germinated Percentage germination 4 25 20 50

10 Germination conditions
Germination is the development of a new plant from the embryo in a seed. Seeds need certain conditions to germinate: Water to activate enzymes which digest stored food Oxygen Needed for the production of energy for germination Warmth Needed for the enzymes to work effectively. SQA Outline the effect of temperature, and availability of water and oxygen on germination Describe the changes in percentage germination that occur over a range of temperatures

11 Germination and Temperature
The best temperature for germination of a species of plant is known as the optimum temperature. The optimum temperature is normally between 15oC and 30oC.

12 Structure of a Flower

13 Petal Anther Stigma

14 Carpelfemale parts Stigma Petals Style Stamen male parts Anther Ovary
Filament SQA-List the functions of the parts of flowers i.e. sepal, petal, stamen, anther, stigma, ovary, nectary Ovules Nectaries Sepals Collect a cut-out flower, colour it in and put it together.

15 What do the parts do? Sepals- protect the flower when it is a bud
Stamen- anther produces male sex cells (pollen) Carpel- stigma traps pollen Style is where pollen tube grows down to female sex cells. Petals- colourful to attract the insects Botanical gardens booklet 1- flowers and pollination (blue) Nectaries- give out sugary liquid to attract insects Carpel- ovary produces female sex cells (ovules)

16 Quick Test Why is the seed coat important?
Name the parts of the embryo plant. Why is the food store in a seed important? Name the three factors required for germination. Where are a plant’s sex organs found? Name two parts of a flower that attract insects. Name the male part of a flower. Which part of the flower contains ovules? Which part of the flower produces pollen? Which part of a flower catches pollen grains?

17 Pollination Pollination involves the transfer of pollen (male gamete) from the anther to the stigma (outermost female part) If it is in the same flower it is called self-pollination. If between different flowers it is called cross-pollination Plants are pollinated by insects or the wind.


19 Insect Pollinated Plants
SQA-Explain the structure of wind and insect-pollinated flowers in relation to sexual reproduction

20 Wind Pollinated Plants

21 Pollination Activity Look at the Botanics Posters
Which features are from wind pollinated or insect pollinated plants? Workbook p28 Construct a table to show the differences between insect and wind pollinated plants. B

22 Pollination Summary Structure Wind Pollinated Insect Pollinated Petals
Pollen Stamen Stigma nectar dull bright colour light sticky dangling inside flower feathery sticky none makes sugar

23 Hayfever World of plants workbook G – pages 34 &35 C- pages 36 & 37
Answer Q 1 – 5 on hayfever and Answer Q 1 – 5 on pollen in the air from Feb - Sept

24 Fertilisation Fertilisation involves the fusion of the nucleus of the male gamete (in the pollen) with the nucleus of the female gamete (in the ovules). Botanical gardens booklet 2 World of plants –fruits and seeds green

25 Fertilisation SQA-Describe the growth of a pollen tube and fusion of gametes SQA- Describe fertilisation and fruit formation Botanics fruit formation Tomato- juicy fruit Bean- pod Sycamore- small dry nut Hazelnut- hard outer wall Botanics info Pollen tubes measured were 6, 9, 11 cm long!!

26 Pollen tubes The pollen grain grows a tube. The tube reaches an ovule.
The gamete nuclei fuse (fertilisation) and a zygote (seed) forms.

27 Pollen tube growth

28 Fertilisation Once fertilisation has taken place the zygote (fertilised ovule)becomes a seed, and the ovary becomes a fruit. The petals die and fall off. The plant seeds are in the fruit. Soft and juicy- tomato, plum and apple Hard and dry- sycamore, dandelion

29 What are fruits like? The fruits can be: - soft & fleshy - hard & dry
What fruits can you think of? What are their seeds like? Draw a table with headings for each type and write some examples for them.

30 Types of Fruits Soft & fleshy Hard & dry Apple Tomato Hazelnut

31 Seed Dispersal- why? Seeds must be carried away (dispersed / scattered) from the parent plant to: Reduce overcrowding Reduce competition for: - Water - Light - Nutrients Botanical gardens booklet 2 World of plants –fruits and seeds green

32 Seed Dispersal Dispersal method Description Seeds/ Fruits Wind
Seeds are designed to travel as far as possible. May have extensions which act as parachutes or wings. Fruits may be shaken like a pepper pot. SQA-Give one example for each of the following different dispersal mechanisms: wind, animal – internal, animal - external Plus water but rare and don’t need to know about it. Water- seeds float and can travel for miles down rivers and into sea Parachute/wings- sycamore, dandelion Pepperpot- poppy Botanics Animal external Mule grab- wool/hair, trample burr-foot, hooked burr-wool, mistletoe-beak Animal internal Brightly coloured to attract animal Like to eat as sweet, nutrient source Seeds pass through stomach must be able to resist acid Wind Sycamore 110cm, dandelion 163cm, elm 50cm, pine 79cm (by throwing seeds in air?)

33 Seed Dispersal Dispersal method Description Seeds/ Fruits
Animal (internal) Fruit is brightly coloured to attract animals. When eaten the seed travels with the animal, survives acidic digestive juices and is passed out in the faeces. SQA-Give one example for each of the following different dispersal mechanisms: wind, animal – internal, animal – external Examples animal internal- Cherry, tomato

34 Seed Dispersal Dispersal method Description Seeds/ Fruits Animal
(external) Some have little hooks or sticky substances so they stick onto the animal’s fur, are carried away and rubbed off later. Some carried away by animals and dropped. SQA-Give one example for each of the following different dispersal mechanisms: wind, animal – internal, animal – external animal external Mistletoe has a sticky substance on the outside. Hooks on outside- burdock Carried and dropped- hazelnuts

35 Activity Wind Animal (external) Animal (internal)
Cut out the seeds, match and stick them into appropriate columns in a table, for: Wind Animal (external) Animal (internal) Photocopied handout of seed to cut and stick. [There is also mechanical (eg broom, sea cucumber) and water (eg coconut) but you don’t need to know them for Standard grade]

36 Activity Listening exercise on seed dispersal Listen to the tape,
Use the commentary to help you answer questions on your handout. File in box in animal house with polypocketed commentary (white paper) of tape World of Plants Workbook p41 Comparing Lime and Sycamore seeds. Go through the problem solving activity

37 Quick Test-A What term is used to describe male and female gametes?
What is pollination? Name the two types of pollination. Describe the differences in the pollen between insect and wind pollinated plants. Explain why the stigmas of wind pollinated flowers hang outside the flowers.

38 Quick test-B Why do wind pollinated flowers not produce nectar?
How does the male gamete reach the female gamete? What is a fruit? Name three ways in which fruits and seeds are dispersed. Why is it important that fruits and seeds are carried away from the parent plant?

39 Types of reproduction Sexual reproduction
Involves 2 parents and sex cells ie. pollen and ovule join to make a new individual. Asexual reproduction Involves 1 parent and no sex cells. Ways they naturally reproduce include: - Tubers - ( Bulbs ) - Runners SQA Describe asexual reproduction by runners and tubers Botanics book 3 asexual reproduction Yellow

40 Tubers Tubers are underground food stores which stores food over the winter and provides a new plant with food until it can make its own. Examples: potato, artichoke, yam, cassava, water chestnut, arrowroot Tuber info from Taro- Japanese potato Food made by the new plant is sent to make new tubers. Thereby reproducing itself.

41 Arrowroot arrowroot = arrow root = Chinese potato (this name also is used for jicama) = goo = seegoo = arrowhead = Chinese arrowhead = tse goo = ci gu = tsu goo Notes:   The name arrowroot is more commonly associated with a thickener that's made from the plant. A fresh arrowroot tuber looks like a small onion, only without the layers. It should be peeled, and then it can be boiled or stir-fried. Look for it in Chinese markets during the winter.

42 Cassava cassava = casava = manioc = mandioca = tapioca root = yucca = yucca root = yuca root = Brazilian arrowroot   Pronunciation:   kuh-SAH-vuh Notes:   People in Hispanic countries use cassavas much like Americans use potatoes.  There's both a sweet and a bitter variety of cassava. The sweet one can be eaten raw, but the bitter one requires cooking to destroy the harmful prussic acid it contains. 

43 Topinambour tapioca root Topinambour Water chestnut
Chinese water chestnut Notes:  Water chestnuts are delightfully sweet and crisp- if you buy them fresh. You need to peel off their brown jackets and simmer them for five minutes before stir-frying. Tinned Water chestnuts are easily available but not nearly as good. If you use them, blanch them first in boiling water for thirty seconds.  ACTIVITY WORKBOOK p 39 Growing potatoes PS

44 Bulbs Bulbs are also underground food stores which work in the same way as tubers. The difference is that bulbs have thick fleshy ‘leaves’. Keukenhof gardens near Amsterdam Holland.

45 Stargazer lily Bulb drawings tulip and non-t from Examples: snowdrop, crocus, daffodil, iris, lily, hyacinths, amaryllis, onion, garlic.

46 1. Sept.- Oct. Planting Time The tulip bulbs are going to be planted twice as deep as the bulb is high. They have no roots at this stage. 2. November Making Roots The roots start growing out of the base, establish themselves taking nutrients from the soil. Mother bulbs get ready for winter. 4. Feb. – March Growing Period The bulbs begin to change as the starch, or carbohydrates in them turns to sugar. As this occurs, the leaves and flower gradually push up-wards out of the bulb. 5. April – May Blooming Time The tulips are in bloom-they receive their nourishment from the roots-only the brown skin of the bulb remains as all of the energy has gone to the bloom. 6. May – June Regeneration After flowering the blooms are cut and the leaves are left on the plant. The new daughter-bulbs use the food in the leaves to grow. 7. July - Sept. Multiplying Up to five small bulbs can be expected to grow out of the mother bulb. They form their roots slowly, and develop their blooms and leaves within the bulb, for next year's plant. Source 3. Dec. - Jan.Cooling Period Rest period. In order for bulbs to bloom in the spring they need weeks of at least 5oC. Frost at this time doesn’t harm them.

47 Runners Runners are side shoots which grow out from the parent plant.
Buds form at points along the runner and eventually these buds form roots and grow into new plants. Examples: spider plant (Anthericum), strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)

48 Collect Information Card “Asexual Reproduction”
Flame violet (Episcia reptans) Info card in box file in animal house- blue sheet polypocketed. Collect Information Card “Asexual Reproduction” Take short notes from it.

49 World of plants workbook
Activity World of plants workbook Read p20 “Advantages of asexual reproduction” Read p32 & 33. Copy and complete the table. Summarising advantages & disadvantages of sexual versus asexual reproduction SQA- List the advantages of both sexual and asexual reproduction to plants

50 Reproduction- advantages
Asexual Sexual Genetically identical offspring (clones) which have parent’s strong characteristics (but weak ones also passed on) and are suited to their environment. Narrow distribution spreading over the area quickly as no vulnerable stages involved. Genetically different offspring- variation. More chance of survival if conditions change. Wide distribution Reduces competition for water/light/nutrients as no dense growth around the parent. Using seeds allows the offspring to travel to new areas.

51 Clones A clone is the name given to the genetically identical plants produced from a single parent plant. They are formed during asexual reproduction only. SQA- State what Is meant by the term “clone”

52 Artificial Propagation
People can make use of plants’ ability to reproduce asexually (instead of using seeds) by using methods of artificial propagation such as: - Cuttings - Graftings Again this produces genetically identical offspring (clones). ACTIVITY WORKBOOK p40 Dandelion roots PS

53 Cuttings They can be placed in moist soil or water (and sometimes
Cuttings are small pieces of stem with some leaves attached, the new plant grows from this. SQA- Describe ways of propagating flowering plants artificially by cuttings and graftings Source They can be placed in moist soil or water (and sometimes dipped in rooting powder).

54 Grafting A cut stem of one plant (with good flower or fruit growth) (the graft) is taken and firmly attached to the rootstock of another plant (which has a strong, established root system) (the stock). Examples- roses, fruit trees

55 Grafting- advantages Allows you to clone the commercial qualities of a particular fruit variety on another tree. Seed trees have highly variable fruit quality. They come into production much earlier (2-3 years) than trees grown from seed (5-10 years).

56 World of Plants Workbook p42
Activity World of Plants Workbook p42 The effect of rooting powder on cuttings Collect some graph paper and work through the problem solving activity

57 World of plants workbook p33
Activity World of plants workbook p33 “Artificial propagation- commercial advantages” Read page. Collect Information sheet Write short notes on it. SQA- Explain the advantages to man of artificial propagation in flowering plants

58 Commercial aspects Artificial propagation has allowed us to adapt and improve plants for our own use. Some of the benefits include: Quick production of large numbers of genetically identical plants. ACTIVITY WORKBOOK p42 Air Layering in clematis PS Specific varieties, desired features or consistent quality can be produced especially in fruit, flowers.

59 Quick Test-C One Runners, tubers, bulbs Spider plant, strawberry
How many parents are involved in asexual reproduction? Name 3 ways in which plants reproduce asexually. Give 2 examples of plants that reproduce asexually by producing runners. What term is used to describe a population of genetically identical plants? Name 2 common methods of artificial propagation. Give the commercial advantages of artificial propagation. One Runners, tubers, bulbs Spider plant, strawberry Clones Q from Leckie book Cuttings, grafting Quick method, producing large numbers of plants, of known quality and specific variety

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