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Anatomy and Medicine. Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Medicine. Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Medicine

2 Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge and make great discoveries in the fields of Biology and Anatomy. European Middle Ages doctors relied on Greek, Galen Galen’s works inaccurate Flemish doctor Andreas Vesalius became known for work in anatomy Biology Used bodies of executed criminals for dissection Hired artists to produce accurate drawings On the Workings of the Human Body, 1543 Vesalius English physician, early 1600s Observed, explained workings of human heart Described blood, circulatory system functions William Harvey Discoveries in Biology and Anatomy

3 Robert Hooke English physician, inventor Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic level Credited with creating the term cell Antony van Leeuwenhoek Dutch scientist, 1600s Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscope First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganisms

4 Scientific Revolution: Paracelsus: Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim 1493 to 1541 AD Swiss One of the first to challenge the ideas of Galen Said that people could only learn by experience So when he became a teacher, he burned the books of Galen He was the first to realize that poisoning could causes diseases like breathing metal vapors He was the first to think of chemicals as medicine Unfortunately his favorite medicine was mercury, so he actually poisoned the people he was trying to heal

5 Paracelsus ( ) Rejected the work of both Aristotle and Galen Replace the traditional system with a new chemical philosophy based upon a new understanding of nature derived from fresh observation & experiment Believed disease was caused by chemical imbalance in the organs which could be solved by chemical remedies Although chemical remedies had been used, Paracelsus and his followers differed by giving careful attention to the proper dosages of their chemically prepared metals & materials

6 Paracelsus Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. Born Phillip von Hohenheim, he later took up the name Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, and still later took the title Paracelsus, meaning "equal to or greater than Celsus", a Roman physician from the first century BC. “Bier is a really divine medicine”. Paracelsus (1493 – 1541).

7 Paracelcus

8 Paracelsus Paracelsus: Genius with bad press agent Attended Universities of Heidelberg, Freiburg, Ingolstadt, Cologne, Tübingen, Vienna, Erfurt and Ferrara, left without degree, drank to excess, and wandered over most of known world, took part in the Peasants War (1525) Practiced medicine in Spain, Portugal, England, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, Hungary, Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, probably other places as well, frequently aggravating established practitioners. Investigated the use of opium, coined the term laudanum for tincture of opium, an opium extract containing 40-80% ethanol. Pioneered use of chemicals, elements in medicine (Zn, Hg, Au) Introduced draining to replace amputation or cauterization Introduced dose-response concept Recognized the first industrial disease in miners

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10 Paracelsus Alle Ding' sind Gift und nichts ohn' Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist. ("All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.”) Paracelsus crater photographed by Apollo 15. An 83 km crater on the far side of the moon.

11 Paracelsus Paracelsus: a few weird facts “Paracelsus” a 1943 film by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, essentially a Nazi propaganda film. Professor Bulwer in 1922 Murnau film 'Nosferatu' is a follower of Paracelsus “Paracelsus” (lengthy dramatic poem by Robert Browning) Paracelsus is mentioned as an inspiration to Victor Frankenstein, the main character in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Paracelsus is one of the people featured on a Chocolate Frog card in Harry Potter. A bust of Paracelsus is in the castle at Hogwarts, near Gryffindor, between the entrance to the Gryffindor common room and the Owlry, as mentioned in Order of the Phoenix

12 Andreas Vesalius (1514 to 1564) Barber surgeon (combination barber, dentist, doctor). Got special permission from the Pope to dissect criminals. First scientist to understand human anatomy. Wrote the first accurate book on human anatomy – Fabrica.

13 Andreas Vesalius: Belgian Proved Galen wrong by stealing bodies and dissecting them Grave-robbing for corpses became common

14 Shortage of cadavers In England and Scotland, medical schools began to open. No one donated bodies to science – churchgoers believed in literal rising from grave, so dissection spoiled chances of resurrection. Became a tradition to rely on executed prisoners, even up to 18th and 19th centuries.

15 Serious Crimes The added punishment of being dissected after death was considered another deterrent from crime. Ex. – Steal a pig: you were hung Kill a person: you were hung and dissected Anatomists were often associated with executioners.

16 Need for Body Parts Because they needed body parts, anatomists at medical school bought odd things. A man could sell the leg of his son if it had to be amputated

17 Grave Robbing Some medical students raided grave yards; some professors did also. In certain Scottish schools in 1700s, you could trade a corpse for your tuition.

18 Resurrectionists By 1828 in London, body snatchers (or resurrectionists) provided the medical schools with corpses. Not a crime; a dead body could not be owned or stolen. (Anatomy studies were only conducted from October to May to avoid stench of decomposition.)

19 Reactions to Grave Robbing Wealthy people chose to be buried in iron cages, some covered in concrete. Also churches built “dead houses” which were locked and guarded.

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22 The Body in the Scientific Revolution A New Doctor – A New Body Andreas Vesalius ( ) Dutch-born Physician Taught medicine at University of Padua (Italy) 1543 –Publishes new textbook on anatomy, On the Workings of the Human Body Same year Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Textbook attacks many of the established theories of Aristotle and Galen on the basis of Vesalius’s own dissections. Book is illustrated with detailed printed images.

23 Andreas Vesalius: ( ) Belgian anatomist and physician whose work help correct many of the misconceptions of the time Dissected actual human bodies, in a belief that Galen’s work was inaccurate because it was based on animals Published his finding in 1543 in On The Structure of the Human Body wrote De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) – seven volumes on the structure of the human body which he illustrated himself –These were the most accurate and comprehensive anatomical texts at the time Appointed as physician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

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25 Images from Vesalius’s book Vesalius

26 This anonymous German print shows a thigh wound being cauterized. Above the action we can see the various medical instruments used for different types of wounds Source: Hans von Gersdorff, Feldbuch der Wundartzey (sSrasbourg, 1540).

27 Andreas Vesalius The new anatomy of the sixteenth century was based on the work of Andreas Vesalius. He reported his results from dissecting human bodies as a professor of surgery at the University of Padua, presenting an accurate view of the individual organs and general structure of the human body. He erroneously believed that the body had two kinds of blood

28 Andreas Vesalius ( ) His studies corrected Galen in relation to anatomy - believed practical research as the best way for understanding human anatomy 1543 published On the Fabric of the Human Body –Based upon his lectures at Padua –Deviated from traditional practice by personally dissecting a body to illustrate what he was discussing Through his “hands-on” approach, Vesalius rectified some of Galen’s more glaring errors For example, the belief that the great blood vessels originated from the liver, but he still clung to Galen’s belief about the ebb & flow of two kinds of blood in the veins and arteries

29 The Body in the Scientific Revolution An anatomy lesson from the title page of Vesalius’s book.

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31 Giovanni Morgagni: 1682 – 1771AD Italian Studied the effects of disease on the body’s insides Published a big book listing the effects of diseases on the body’s organs Proved the ancient doctors wrong and that death was caused by damage to organs and not by humours

32 Morgagni Giovanni Battista Morgagni was born at Forli, Italy, on February 20, 1682; he died at Padua on December 6, He was educated at the University of Bologna, receiving a degree in philosophy and medicine there in He studied under A. M. Valsalva ( ), whom he venerated for the rest of his life;when Valsalva left Bologna for Parma, Morgagni succeeded him as demonstrator in anatomy. He was made President of the Accademia at the age of 24,and he gained a reputation for his dislike of speculation as opposed to accurate observation. In 1706 he began publication of a series of anatomical works, which led to his becoming known in Europe as an anatomist.

33 Morgagni In 1712, he left Bologna for Padua, where, except for a short unsuccessful attempt at practicing medicine in Forli, he was to spend the rest of his life as Professor of Anatomy. Shortly after settling in Padua, he married Paola Vergieri of Forli,with whom he had 15 children. His eight daughters all entered convents, which is said to have caused him considerable sadness near the end of his life. After his wife died in 1770, the aged widower did not have much desire to continue living. Ironically, his life, which had contributed so much to the understanding of the pathological basis of stroke, came to an end on December 6, 1771, when he (like his teacher Valsalva before him) succumbed to the condition.

34 Morgagni Morgagni taught at the renowned University of Padua for 56 years (1715 to 1771). His greatest professional achievement came in 1761 when, at the age of 79, he published his masterpiece, De Sedibus et Causis Morborum (translated into English as On the Sites and Causes of Disease). The book, consisting of five volumes of letters (for a total of 70 letters), described Morgagni's observations of some 700 autopsies, and it included his correlationsbetween clinical symptoms and postmortem findings (lesions) for each of the cases studied. (Morgagni expressed his debt in De Sedibus to previouslypublished work by Theophile Bonet, , although the latter's work, Sepulcretum, translated in English as Graves), is generally considered to be a poorly organized and inconclusive summary of autopsy findings up to 1679.)

35 Morgagni It was Morgagni's study that introduced the clinical principles and practices that are still used today. Morgagni also drew on the ideas of Hippocrates, whose methods of observation and reasoning formed the basis for many of Morgagni's own ideas. For example, whereas Hippocrates made systematic differentiations of diseases based on observed external symptoms, Morgagni went farther and related the external expressions of the particular disease to the internal conditions within the body. Morgagni thus focused on theinternal damage within the body that gives rise to disease. In clinical practice, Morgagni carefully noted the symptoms during the course of a patient's illness, and then attempted to identify the organic or pathological causes off that disease during the postmortem examination.

36 Because Morgagni's studies were so extensive, it became possible for him to predict or visualize internal conditions based on symptomatic observations. Morgagni's work was also instrumental in debunking the ancient humoral theory of disease, according to which there is one cause for all diseases. Morgagni'sDe Sedibus clearly identifies the pathologies of a number of diseases, including hepatic cirrhosis (acute yellow atrophy), cerebral gummata, cardiac valvular lesions, renal tuberculosis, pneumonic solidification of the lungs, and syphilitic lesions (aneurysms) of the brain. Morgagni also proved, through many autopsies, that cerebral lesion in stroke occurs on the opposite side from the resulting paralysis. Morgagni has bequeathed his name to many anatomical part's and conditions of the human body, e.g., the Morgagnian cataract. Morgagni

37 Morgagni was held in high esteem by his colleagues and students; he was the friend of many Venetian senators and several popes. His international reputation was attested to by his election to the Academia Naturae Curiosorum(1708); the Academy of Science, Paris (1731); the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg (1735); and the Berlin Academy (1754). Morgagni was largely responsible during the more than 50 years he spent as a professor at the University of Padua for that university's foremost reputation in Europe during the 18th century. Besides being recognized today as one of the leading figures in 18th-century medicine, he is considered the father of morbid anatomy, and a founder of modern anatomy and pathology.

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39 William Harvey: English Physician Also disproved many of Galen’s hypotheses discovered the circulation of blood, the function of valves in the heart Worked with small animals and with humans Published his observations in Exercitatio Anatornica de Moto Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus aka De Moto Cordis Discovered the lack of circulation to the lungs in the fetal stage and therefore that lungs were collapsed and inactive in this phase Largely influenced by the mechanical philosophy in his work with the flow of blood First doctor to use quantitative and observational methods in his experiments Very skeptical of spontaneous generation; proposed that all animals originated from an egg

40 “[The heart] is the household divinity which, discharging its function, nourishes, cherishes, quickens the whole body, and is indeed the foundation of life, the source of all action” - Harvey Harvey

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42 William Harvey He also showed that the same blood runs through veins and arteries and that the blood makes a complete circuit through the body. Harvey’s work was based on close observation and experiment.

43 William Harvey and the Human Blood System It was only with the discoveries of William Harvey that this belief was corrected Through his research & observations, Harvey demonstrated that the heart, not the liver, was the beginning point of circulation of blood in the body, that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries, and most important, blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body

44 The Body in the Scientific Revolution From Observation to Experimentation William Harvey’s experiments to demonstrate the circulation of blood (1628). This illustrates an experiment to show that blood in the veins only flows toward the heart because of valves that stop blood from flowing back away from it.

45 LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU ( ) · A famous poet · Herself a smallpox victim; In December 1715 smallpox ruined her good looks left her without eyelashes and with deeply pitted skin Lady Mary was the wife of the British Ambassador to Turkey ( ). Learned how to variolate persons in Turkey and variolated her son in 1717 and her daughter in England in · Although there was much resistance to the acceptance of this vaccination method and Lady Mary was heavily criticized by the higher society in England, the permission to vaccinate the children of the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1772 dramatically promoted the adaptation of this method in England and in other part of Europe. · By the second half of the 18th century, Europe was being ravaged by smallpox epidemics. By this time, in rural England, it was noticed that women who milked cows were frequently spared clinical smallpox disease and several undocumented accounts suggest that the connection was made between contact with cowpox virus and protection from smallpox.

46 Edward Jenner: Developed the first vaccination in 1796 It was to treat smallpox. His vaccine used smallpox pus from the less deadly disease cowpox. by 1800 most were using it. Jenner was awarded £ by Parliament to enable him to continue carrying out his tests. Deaths from smallpox plummeted and vaccination spread through Europe and North America.

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48 Jenner worked in a rural community and most of his patients were farmers or worked on farms with cattle. In the 18th century smallpox was a very common disease and was a major cause of death.smallpox The main treatment was by a method which had brought success to a Dutch physiologist Jan Ingenhaus and was brought to England in 1721 from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortly Montague. This method involved inoculating healthy people with substances from the pustules of those who had a mild case of the disease, but this often had fatal results In 1788 an epidemic of smallpox hit Gloucestershire and during this outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in contact with the much milder disease called cowpox never came down with smallpox. cowpox Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked. Jenner was given the opportunity on the 14 May 1796, when a young milkmaid called Sarah Nelmes came to see him with sores on her hands like blisters. Jenner identified that she had caught cowpox from the cows she handled each day.

49 Jenner now had the opportunity to obtain the material try out his theories. He carefully extracted some liquid from her sores and then took some liquid from the sores of a patient with mild smallpox. Jenner believed that if he could inject someone with cowpox, the germs from the cowpox would make the body able to defend itself against the dangerous smallpox germs which he would inject later. Jenner approached a local farmer called Phipps and asked him if he could inoculate his son James against smallpox. He explained to the farmer that if his theory was correct, James would never contract smallpox. Surprisingly, the farmer agreed. Jenner made two small cuts on James's left arm. He then poured the liquid from Sarah's cowpox sores into the open wounds which he bandaged. James went down with cowpox but was not very ill. Six weeks later when James had recovered, Jenner vaccinated him again, this time with the smallpox virus. This was an extremely dangerous experiment. If James lived Jenner would have found a way of preventing smallpox. If James developed smallpox and died he would be a murderer.

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51 Jenner wrote a paper in 1798 explaining his experiments, and wanted to report his first case study in the “Transactions of the Royal Society of London” His study was rejected. He then went to London to demonstrate his theory. No one would submit to his vaccination. Discouraged, Jenner returned to Berkeley.  In 1801, Jenner published “The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation” describing how cowpox virus was prepared and used to protect ("vaccinate") healthy persons against smallpox. Material used as the vaccine was prepared from the arm of a vaccinated child, thus the distribution of vaccine involved the transportation of vaccinated children all over Europe. Orphans were often used for this purpose. Eventually, material from infected cows was used directly as vaccine. By 1840, the British government had banned other preventive treatments against smallpox. “Vaccination,” the word Jenner invented for his treatment (from the Latin, vacca, a cow), was adopted by Louis Pasteur for immunization against any disease.

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53 Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale ( ) –In 1854 Florence Nightingale took 38 women to Turkey to nurse wounded and sick British soldiers in the Crimean War. –This was the first time the government had allowed women to do this. –She suffered from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) for the rest of her life. – She became not only the first modern war nurse and nurse commander but its first documented psychological casualty. –She publishes a small booklet titled "Notes on Nursing." It is very popular. –It is expanded and published again in 1860 and in 1861 with special section on taking care of babies. –This book sold millions all over the world: the only money she ever earned in her life was her royalties from this book. –This book establishes the foundation for the nursing profession

54 The Lady with the Lamp 1854 heard of Crimean War (between Britain & Russia) Bad conditions during war for injured (hurt) soldiers Most soldiers sent to Turkey Florence got supplies and a group of nurses to go and help Men happy to have cleaner hospitals and good food. Florence cared for the soldiers by walking round at night and checking they were alright So, soldiers called Florence...

55 Florence Nightingale In 1854 the Crimean War broke out – England was at war with Russia People in England heard that soldiers in hospitals were poorly treated. Florence was invited to take a group of 38 female nurses to work in hospitals in the Crimea.

56 Florence became famous when war ended in 1856 Queen Victoria wanted to meet her Florence set up the Nightingale School of Nursing in London She died in 1910 Lots of people wanted her help and advice

57 Florence is remembered today as the person responsible for improving conditions in hospitals and making nursing an acceptable job Florence Nightingale

58 Why was Florence called ‘The Lady with the Lamp’? …because Florence cared for the soldiers by walking round at night and checking they were alright. She gave them good food to eat.

59 The Men of Biology Louis Pasteur -Confirmed the theory of diseases -Introduced the process of pasteurization -First to create a vaccine against rabies -Disproved the theory of spontaneous generation

60 Preventing Disease Breakthroughs in late 1800s as result of scientific advances earlier in century Fundamental concepts of disease, medical care, sanitation revealed Mysteries of what caused diseases began to be solved Fermentation Bacteria in the air causes grape juice to turn to wine, milk to sour Heating liquids, foods can kill bacteria, prevent fermentation Process became known as pasteurization, makes foods germ-free Microbes and Disease Louis Pasteur showed link between the two, 1870 Disproved spontaneous generation concept of bacteria from nonliving matter Showed bacteria always present though unseen, can reproduce Medical Breakthroughs

61 Anthrax Deadly disease a constant threat to people, livestock Pasteur sought to prevent anthrax Injected animals with vaccine containing weakened anthrax germs Rabies Pasteur’s next goal Developed vaccine, 1885 Saved life of young boy bitten by rabid dog Antibodies Vaccine worked because body builds antibodies Antibodies fight weakened germs when they enter body Medical Breakthroughs

62 Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur ( ) –He proved that air contains living organisms (bacteria) –That these microbes can produce putrefaction –That these microbes could be killed by the heating of the liquid they were in - sterilization by high temperature -> Pasteurization –He proved that the old idea that diseases start out of nothing (spontaneous generation) was inaccurate and that micro-organisms cause disease. –Demonstrates the presence of bacteria in air and explains how disease can be transmitted by airborne route.

63 Louis Pasteur: 1822 – 1895AD French Developed the theory that the bacteria we call germs caused disease and not bad smells Found out how to preserve wine by heating it to kill germs--- pasteurization Found the causes of anthrax and cholera Discovered how to weaken germs by heating them up until they are damaged and can no longer multiply He used this to develop vaccinations for rabies

64 Louis Pasteur ( ) Stereochemistist: molecular asymmetry Fermentation and silk worker disease, Pasteurisation, Germ Theory of disease Thus started microbilogy Attenuated vaccines for cholera, anthrax, and rabies On July 4, 1886, 9-year-old Joseph Meister was bitten repeatedly by a rabid dog. Pasteur treated him with his attenuated rabies vaccine two days later. Meister survived. Joseph Meister later become a gatekeeper for the Pasteur Institute. In 1940, when he was ordered by the German occupiers to open Pasteur's crypt, Joseph Meister refused and committed suicide!  Another way to look at Louis Pasteur: THE DREAM AND LIE OF LOUIS PASTEUR by R. B. Pearson

65 Pasteur’s contributions  First, championed changes in hospital practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes.  Second, discovered that weakened forms of a microbe could be used to immunize against more virulent forms of the microbe.  Third, found that rabies was transmitted by agents so small they could not be seen under a microscope, thus revealing the world of viruses. As a result he developed techniques to vaccinate dogs against rabies, and to treat humans bitten by rabid dogs.  And fourth, developed "pasteurization," a process by which harmful microbes in perishable food products are destroyed by heat, without destroying the food.

66 Pasteur and the Defeat of Spontaneous Generation Louis Pasteur ( ) –Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process (originally thought to be purely chemical) –Disproved theory of spontaneous generation Led to the development of methods for controlling the growth of microorganisms –Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies

67 The Defeat of Spontaneous Generation: Pasteur’s Experiment

68 What Causes Fermentation? Spoiled wine threatening livelihood of vintners, so they funded research into how to promote production of alcohol, but prevent spoilage by acid during fermentation Some believed air caused fermentation reactions, while others insisted living organisms caused fermentation This debate also linked to debate over spontaneous generation

69 Pasteur’s Experiments on Pasteurization Figure 1.14

70 Pasteur Strikes it Lucky Impressed by Jenner’s work on Smallpox –But Jenner and Pasteur did not understand how vaccination worked –Trial and error Chicken Cholera, 1879 –Common disease affecting farmers livestock –Pasteur experiments with injecting weaker forms of disease into chickens Little success His team goes home for the summer On return, they accidentally use a strain that had been left uncovered for the whole summer It works! Exposure to the air had weakened the germs “Chance only favours the mind which is prepared”

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72 Medical Breakthroughs Treatment of Infections Many surgical patients died from infections English surgeon Joseph Lister, 1860s –Began cleaning wounds and equipment with antiseptic containing carbolic acid –Reduced post-surgery deaths in one hospital ward from 45 to 15 percent

73 Joseph Lister Joseph Lister ( ) –A Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, he was very aware that many people survived the trauma of an operation but died afterwards of what was known as ‘ward fever’ –Work on ward cleanliness and the link between germs and good post-operative health had already been studied by a Hungarian doctor called Ignaz Semmelweiss. –He argued that if a doctor went from one patient to another after doing surgery, that doctor would pass on to the next visited patient a potentially life threatening disease. –He insisted that those doctors who worked for him wash their hands in calcium chloride after an operation and before visiting a new patient -> Introduces antiseptic surgery –At the time, it was not known that the infections were caused by bacteria

74 Early needs and success for disinfection (Early 1800’s) —— a historic story almost half of post-operative patients died of sepsis (then called “hospital disease”). A common report by surgeons was: operation successful but patient died. By mid-1800’s, A hypothesis: ① exposing moist body tissue to oxygen  sepsis; ② best prevention: keeping air away from wounds by means of plasters, collodion or resins. Having tried methods to encourage clean healing with no success, surgeon Joseph Lister discarded the concept of direct infection by bad air but postulated that sepsis might be caused by a 'pollen-like dust‘, although he did not know yet the “dust” was living microbes. When Louis Pasteur suggested the presence of living organisms in the air, Lister made the connection with wound sepsis: the microbes in the air were likely causing the sepsis and should be destroyed before they entered the wound. Lister had previously heard that 'carbolic acid' was used to treat sewage, and that fields treated with the affluent were freed of a parasite causing disease in cattle. He then began to clean wounds and dress them with carbolic acid..

75 Biography A doctor who was Born in Prussia in 1843 Interested in Pasteur’s Germ Theory He received a Microscope as a present in 1873 Franco – Prussian Rivalry –Franco-Prussian War 1870/1 –German Government gave Koch money to set up a research institute to rival Pasteur Read Dialogue page 130

76 Robert Koch In the late 19th century two of the most dangerous killer diseases were cholera and tuberculosis. Cholera was nicknamed 'King Cholera' because no one seemed to be able to cure it. Tuberculosis was known as the 'White Death' because sufferers vomited up white matter as their lungs disintegrated. The man who made a breakthrough in the fight against these diseases was Robert Koch.

77 Who Was Robert Koch? Koch was a German scientist, born in Hanover in Koch read Louis Pasteur's work and in 1872 began research into the microbes affecting diseased animals and people.

78 What made Koch famous In 1878 Koch discovered that microbes cause wounds to go septic, but his big breakthrough came when he decided to stain microbes with dye, enabling him to photograph them under a microscope. Using this method he was able to study them more effectively and prove that every disease was caused by a different germs. He identified the microbes that caused tuberculosis in 1882 and cholera in 1883.

79 How did he do this? Koch's discoveries were the result of careful research and observation using the microscope, photography and dyes. As a result of his work, the German government also set up an 'Institute of Infectious Diseases' in Berlin in 1891 for medical research and development. These developments set the pattern for the future. In the 20th century medical research has increasingly involved teams of researchers supported by large public or private funds.

80 Robert Koch ( )  German physician; also started to work on Anthrax in 1870's. Identified the spore stage. First time the causative agent of an infectious disease was identified.  Koch's postulates: conditions that must be satisfied before accepting that particular bacteria cause particular diseases.  Discovered the tubercle bacillus and tuberculin. Detailed tuberculin skin test (DTH). Awarded 1905 Nobel Prize.

81 Isolating the Germs that caused Anthrax Explain how 1 Sheep and 20 generations of mice allowed Koch to prove that a particular germ caused Anthrax. Explain why he succeeded?

82 Germ Cultures Koch’s isolation technique pioneered the use of culture plates –He extracted the blood from an infected animal –He found that if he injected an animal with the infected blood it would catch the disease much quicker –The more times he did this the stronger the disease would become –Eventually, this germ could be extracted and be encouraged to breed a pure form in a glass culture plate.

83 The Floodgates open Using Koch’s methods, other scientists were able to isolate and identify the germs that caused particular diseases List the causes of diseases discovered in the 1880s and 1890s However, knowing the cause of these diseases still did not help to treat any sick patients, yet.

84 Robert Koch Robert Koch ( ) –Definitively demonstrated the link between microbes and infectious diseases Identified causative agents of anthrax and tuberculosis –Developed techniques (solid media) for obtaining pure cultures of microbes, some still in existence today –Awarded Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1905 –Koch’s postulates

85 Koch’s Postulates 1.The microbe must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy organisms 2.The suspected microbe must be isolated and grown in a pure culture 3.The same disease must result when the isolated microbe is inoculated into a healthy host 4.The same microbe must be isolated again from the diseased host

86 Koch’s Postulates

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88 Robert Koch Robert Koch ( ) –Koch was a German doctor, influenced by Pasteur's work. In 1872, he began research into the microbes affecting animals and people. –The first animal disease that Koch investigated was anthrax. Koch found out that the anthrax microbe produced spores that lived for a long time after an animal had died. He also proved that these spores could then develop into the anthrax germ and could infect other animals. –Koch also devised a method of proving which germ caused an infection: Koch Postulates –He perfected the technique of growing pure cultures of germs using a mix of potatoes and gelatine. This was a solid enough substance to allow for the germs to be studied better. –In 1882 he identified the bacteria causing tuberculosis (TB). –In 1883, he identified the bacteria causing cholera. –By 1900, twenty-one germs that caused diseases had been identified in just 21 years

89 Koch’s Postulates (1884) 1.Suspect pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals 2.Suspect organism should be grown in pure culture 3.Cells from a pure culture of suspect organism should cause disease in healthy animal 4.Organism should be reisolated and shown to be same as the original

90 Results of his Research The scientific evidence of microbes helped reformers in public health prove that pollution spread disease. It meant certain kinds of action could be taken to prevent certain types of disease, since cholera was carried in water, for example, its spread could be prevented with clean water supplies.

91 Long Term Importance Koch was responsible for establishing the new 'Science of Modern Bacteriology'. By 1900 he and his students had identified 21 germs causing diseases. Koch's assistant, Emil Behring, developed the first anti-toxin that could help to destroy the poison spread by bacteria in the blood stream. Koch's research on bacteria won him the Nobel Prize in 1905.

92 The Men of Biology Sir Alexander Fleming - Isolated and discover the antibiotic properties of penicillin.


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