2Discoveries in Biology and Anatomy Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge and make great discoveries in the fields of Biology and Anatomy.European Middle Ages doctors relied on Greek, GalenGalen’s works inaccurateFlemish doctor Andreas Vesalius became known for work in anatomyBiologyUsed bodies of executed criminals for dissectionHired artists to produce accurate drawingsOn the Workings of the Human Body, 1543VesaliusEnglish physician, early 1600sObserved, explained workings of human heartDescribed blood, circulatory system functionsWilliam Harvey
3Antony van Leeuwenhoek Dutch scientist, 1600sUsed interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscopeFirst to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganismsRobert HookeEnglish physician, inventorUsed early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic levelCredited with creating the term cell
4Scientific Revolution: Paracelsus: Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim 1493 to 1541 ADSwissOne of the first to challenge the ideas of GalenSaid that people could only learn by experienceSo when he became a teacher, he burned the books of GalenHe was the first to realize that poisoning could causes diseases like breathing metal vaporsHe was the first to think of chemicals as medicineUnfortunately his favorite medicine was mercury, so he actually poisoned the people he was trying to heal
5Paracelsus (1493-1541) Rejected the work of both Aristotle and Galen Replace the traditional system with a new chemical philosophy based upon a new understanding of nature derived from fresh observation & experimentBelieved disease was caused by chemical imbalance in the organs which could be solved by chemical remediesAlthough chemical remedies had been used, Paracelsus and his followers differed by giving careful attention to the proper dosages of their chemically prepared metals & materials
6ParacelsusParacelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. Born Phillip von Hohenheim, he later took up the name Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, and still later took the title Paracelsus, meaning "equal to or greater than Celsus", a Roman physician from the first century BC.“Bier is a really divine medicine”. Paracelsus (1493 – 1541).
8Paracelsus: Genius with bad press agent Attended Universities of Heidelberg, Freiburg, Ingolstadt, Cologne, Tübingen, Vienna, Erfurt and Ferrara, left without degree, drank to excess, and wandered over most of known world, took part in the Peasants War (1525)Practiced medicine in Spain, Portugal, England, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, Hungary, Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, probably other places as well, frequently aggravating established practitioners.Investigated the use of opium, coined the term laudanum for tincture of opium, an opium extract containing 40-80% ethanol.Pioneered use of chemicals, elements in medicine (Zn, Hg, Au)Introduced draining to replace amputation or cauterizationIntroduced dose-response conceptRecognized the first industrial disease in miners
10ParacelsusAlle Ding' sind Gift und nichts ohn' Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist. ("All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.”)Paracelsus crater photographed by Apollo 15. An 83 km crater on the far side of the moon.
11Paracelsus: a few weird facts “Paracelsus” a 1943 film by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, essentially a Nazi propaganda film.Professor Bulwer in 1922 Murnau film 'Nosferatu' is a follower of Paracelsus“Paracelsus” (lengthy dramatic poem by Robert Browning)Paracelsus is mentioned as an inspiration to Victor Frankenstein, the main character in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.Paracelsus is one of the people featured on a Chocolate Frog card in Harry Potter. A bust of Paracelsus is in the castle at Hogwarts, near Gryffindor, between the entrance to the Gryffindor common room and the Owlry, as mentioned in Order of the Phoenix
12Andreas Vesalius (1514 to 1564)Barber surgeon (combination barber, dentist, doctor).Got special permission from the Pope to dissect criminals.First scientist to understand human anatomy.Wrote the first accurate book on human anatomy – Fabrica.
13Andreas Vesalius: 1514 - 1564 Belgian Proved Galen wrong by stealing bodies and dissecting themGrave-robbing for corpses became common
14Shortage of cadaversIn England and Scotland, medical schools began to open.No one donated bodies to science – churchgoers believed in literal rising from grave, so dissection spoiled chances of resurrection.Became a tradition to rely on executed prisoners, even up to 18th and 19th centuries.
15Serious CrimesThe added punishment of being dissected after death was considered another deterrent from crime.Ex. – Steal a pig: you were hungKill a person: you were hung and dissectedAnatomists were often associated with executioners.
16Need for Body PartsBecause they needed body parts, anatomists at medical school bought odd things.A man could sell the leg of his son if it had to be amputated
17Grave RobbingSome medical students raided grave yards; some professors did also.In certain Scottish schools in 1700s, you could trade a corpse for your tuition.
18ResurrectionistsBy 1828 in London, body snatchers (or resurrectionists) provided the medical schools with corpses.Not a crime; a dead body could not be owned or stolen.(Anatomy studies were only conducted from October to May to avoid stench of decomposition.)
19Reactions to Grave Robbing Wealthy people chose to be buried in iron cages, some covered in concrete.Also churches built “dead houses” which were locked and guarded.
22The Body in the Scientific Revolution A New Doctor – A New BodyAndreas Vesalius ( )Dutch-born PhysicianTaught medicine at University of Padua (Italy)1543 –Publishes new textbook on anatomy, On the Workings of the Human BodySame year Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly SpheresTextbook attacks many of the established theories of Aristotle and Galen on the basis of Vesalius’s own dissections.Book is illustrated with detailed printed images.
23Andreas Vesalius: ( )Belgian anatomist and physician whose work help correct many of the misconceptions of the timeDissected actual human bodies, in a belief that Galen’s work was inaccurate because it was based on animalsPublished his finding in 1543 in On The Structure of the Human Bodywrote De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) – seven volumes on the structure of the human body which he illustrated himselfThese were the most accurate and comprehensive anatomical texts at the timeAppointed as physician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
26This anonymous German print shows a thigh wound being cauterized This anonymous German print shows a thigh wound being cauterized. Above the action we can see the various medical instruments used for different types of woundsSource: Hans von Gersdorff, Feldbuch der Wundartzey (sSrasbourg, 1540).
27Andreas VesaliusThe new anatomy of the sixteenth century was based on the work of Andreas Vesalius.He reported his results from dissecting human bodies as a professor of surgery at the University of Padua, presenting an accurate view of the individual organs and general structure of the human body.He erroneously believed that the body had two kinds of blood
28Andreas Vesalius ( )His studies corrected Galen in relation to anatomy - believed practical research as the best way for understanding human anatomy1543 published On the Fabric of the Human BodyBased upon his lectures at PaduaDeviated from traditional practice by personally dissecting a body to illustrate what he was discussingThrough his “hands-on” approach, Vesalius rectified some of Galen’s more glaring errorsFor example, the belief that the great blood vessels originated from the liver, but he still clung to Galen’s belief about the ebb & flow of two kinds of blood in the veins and arteries
29The Body in the Scientific Revolution An anatomy lesson from the title page of Vesalius’s book.
31Giovanni Morgagni: 1682 – 1771AD ItalianStudied the effects of disease on the body’s insidesPublished a big book listing the effects of diseases on the body’s organsProved the ancient doctors wrong and that death was caused by damage to organs and not by humours
32MorgagniGiovanni Battista Morgagni was born at Forli, Italy, on February 20, 1682; he died at Padua on December 6, 1771.He was educated at the University of Bologna, receiving a degree in philosophy and medicine there in 1701.He studied under A. M. Valsalva ( ), whom he venerated for the rest of his life;when Valsalva left Bologna for Parma, Morgagni succeeded him as demonstrator in anatomy.He was made President of the Accademia at the age of 24,and he gained a reputation for his dislike of speculation as opposed to accurate observation.In 1706 he began publication of a series of anatomical works, which led to his becoming known in Europe as an anatomist.
33MorgagniIn 1712, he left Bologna for Padua, where, except for a short unsuccessful attempt at practicing medicine in Forli, he was to spend the rest of his life as Professor of Anatomy.Shortly after settling in Padua, he married Paola Vergieri of Forli,with whom he had 15 children.His eight daughters all entered convents, which is said to have caused him considerable sadness near the end of his life.After his wife died in 1770, the aged widower did not have much desire to continue living.Ironically, his life, which had contributed so much to the understanding of the pathological basis of stroke, came to an end on December 6, 1771, when he (like his teacher Valsalva before him) succumbed to the condition.
34MorgagniMorgagni taught at the renowned University of Padua for 56 years (1715 to 1771).His greatest professional achievement came in 1761 when, at the age of 79, he published his masterpiece, De Sedibus et Causis Morborum (translated into English as On the Sites and Causes of Disease).The book, consisting of five volumes of letters (for a total of 70 letters), described Morgagni's observations of some 700 autopsies, and it included his correlationsbetween clinical symptoms and postmortem findings (lesions) for each of the cases studied.(Morgagni expressed his debt in De Sedibus to previouslypublished work by Theophile Bonet, , although the latter's work, Sepulcretum, translated in English as Graves), is generally considered to be a poorly organized and inconclusive summary of autopsy findings up to 1679.)
35MorgagniIt was Morgagni's study that introduced the clinical principles and practices that are still used today.Morgagni also drew on the ideas of Hippocrates, whose methods of observation and reasoning formed the basis for many of Morgagni's own ideas.For example, whereas Hippocrates made systematic differentiations of diseases based on observed external symptoms,Morgagni went farther and related the external expressions of the particular disease to the internal conditions within the body.Morgagni thus focused on theinternal damage within the body that gives rise to disease.In clinical practice, Morgagni carefully noted the symptoms during the course of a patient's illness, and then attempted to identify the organic or pathological causes off that disease during the postmortem examination.
36MorgagniBecause Morgagni's studies were so extensive, it became possible for him to predict or visualize internal conditions based on symptomatic observations.Morgagni's work was also instrumental in debunking the ancient humoral theory of disease, according to which there is one cause for all diseases.Morgagni'sDe Sedibus clearly identifies the pathologies of a number of diseases, including hepatic cirrhosis (acute yellow atrophy), cerebral gummata, cardiac valvular lesions, renal tuberculosis, pneumonic solidification of the lungs, and syphilitic lesions (aneurysms) of the brain.Morgagni also proved, through many autopsies, that cerebral lesion in stroke occurs on the opposite side from the resulting paralysis.Morgagni has bequeathed his name to many anatomical part's and conditions of the human body, e.g., the Morgagnian cataract.
37MorgagniMorgagni was held in high esteem by his colleagues and students; he was the friend of many Venetian senators and several popes.His international reputation was attested to by his election to the Academia Naturae Curiosorum(1708); the Academy of Science, Paris (1731); the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg (1735); and the Berlin Academy (1754).Morgagni was largely responsible during the more than 50 years he spent as a professor at the University of Padua for that university's foremost reputation in Europe during the 18th century.Besides being recognized today as one of the leading figures in 18th-century medicine, he is considered the father of morbid anatomy, and a founder of modern anatomy and pathology.
39William Harvey: English Physician Also disproved many of Galen’s hypothesesdiscovered the circulation of blood, the function of valves in the heartWorked with small animals and with humansPublished his observations in Exercitatio Anatornica de Moto Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus aka De Moto CordisDiscovered the lack of circulation to the lungs in the fetal stage and therefore that lungs were collapsed and inactive in this phaseLargely influenced by the mechanical philosophy in his work with the flow of bloodFirst doctor to use quantitative and observational methods in his experimentsVery skeptical of spontaneous generation; proposed that all animals originated from an egg
40Harvey“[The heart] is the household divinity which, discharging its function, nourishes, cherishes, quickens the whole body, and is indeed the foundation of life, the source of all action” - Harvey
42William HarveyHe also showed that the same blood runs through veins and arteries and that the blood makes a complete circuit through the body.Harvey’s work was based on close observation and experiment.
43William Harvey and the Human Blood System It was only with the discoveries of William Harvey that this belief was correctedThrough his research & observations, Harvey demonstrated that the heart, not the liver, was the beginning point of circulation of blood in the body, that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries, and most important, blood makes a complete circuit as it passes through the body
44The Body in the Scientific Revolution From Observation to ExperimentationWilliam Harvey’s experiments to demonstrate the circulation of blood (1628).This illustrates an experiment to show that blood in the veins only flows toward the heart because of valves that stop blood from flowing back away from it.
45LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU (1689-1762) · A famous poet· Herself a smallpox victim;In December 1715 smallpox ruined her good looks left her without eyelashes and with deeply pitted skinLady Mary was the wife of the British Ambassador to Turkey ( ). Learned how to variolate persons in Turkey and variolated her son in 1717 and her daughter in England in 1721.· Although there was much resistance to the acceptance of this vaccination method and Lady Mary was heavily criticized by the higher society in England, the permission to vaccinate the children of the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1772 dramatically promoted the adaptation of this method in England and in other part of Europe.· By the second half of the 18th century, Europe was being ravaged by smallpox epidemics.By this time, in rural England, it was noticed that women who milked cows were frequently spared clinical smallpox disease and several undocumented accounts suggest that the connection was made between contact with cowpox virus and protection from smallpox.
46Edward Jenner: 1749 - 1823 Developed the first vaccination in 1796 It was to treat smallpox.His vaccine used smallpox pus from the less deadly disease cowpox.by 1800 most were using it. Jenner was awarded £ by Parliament to enable him to continue carrying out his tests.Deaths from smallpox plummeted and vaccination spread through Europe and North America.
48Jenner worked in a rural community and most of his patients were farmers or worked on farms with cattle.In the 18th century smallpox was a very common disease and was a major cause of death.The main treatment was by a method which had brought success to a Dutch physiologist Jan Ingenhaus and was brought to England in 1721 from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortly Montague.This method involved inoculating healthy people with substances from the pustules of those who had a mild case of the disease, but this often had fatal resultsIn 1788 an epidemic of smallpox hit Gloucestershire and during this outbreak Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in contact with the much milder disease called cowpox never came down with smallpox.Jenner needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked.Jenner was given the opportunity on the 14 May 1796, when a young milkmaid called Sarah Nelmes came to see him with sores on her hands like blisters.Jenner identified that she had caught cowpox from the cows she handled each day.
49Jenner now had the opportunity to obtain the material try out his theories. He carefully extracted some liquid from her sores and then took some liquid from the sores of a patient with mild smallpox.Jenner believed that if he could inject someone with cowpox, the germs from the cowpox would make the body able to defend itself against the dangerous smallpox germs which he would inject later.Jenner approached a local farmer called Phipps and asked him if he could inoculate his son James against smallpox.He explained to the farmer that if his theory was correct, James would never contract smallpox. Surprisingly, the farmer agreed.Jenner made two small cuts on James's left arm.He then poured the liquid from Sarah's cowpox sores into the open wounds which he bandaged.James went down with cowpox but was not very ill.Six weeks later when James had recovered, Jenner vaccinated him again, this time with the smallpox virus.This was an extremely dangerous experiment. If James lived Jenner would have found a way of preventing smallpox.If James developed smallpox and died he would be a murderer.
51Jenner wrote a paper in 1798 explaining his experiments, and wanted to report his first case study in the “Transactions of the Royal Society of London” His study was rejected.He then went to London to demonstrate his theory.No one would submit to his vaccination. Discouraged, Jenner returned to Berkeley.· In 1801, Jenner published “The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation” describing how cowpox virus was prepared and used to protect ("vaccinate") healthy persons against smallpox.Material used as the vaccine was prepared from the arm of a vaccinated child, thus the distribution of vaccine involved the transportation of vaccinated children all over Europe.Orphans were often used for this purpose.Eventually, material from infected cows was used directly as vaccine. By 1840, the British government had banned other preventive treatments against smallpox.“Vaccination,” the word Jenner invented for his treatment (from the Latin, vacca, a cow), was adopted by Louis Pasteur for immunization against any disease.
53Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale (1820 - 1910) In 1854 Florence Nightingale took 38 women to Turkey to nurse wounded and sick British soldiers in the Crimean War.This was the first time the government had allowed women to do this.She suffered from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) for the rest of her life.She became not only the first modern war nurse and nurse commander but its first documented psychological casualty.She publishes a small booklet titled "Notes on Nursing." It is very popular.It is expanded and published again in 1860 and in 1861 with special section on taking care of babies.This book sold millions all over the world: the only money she ever earned in her life was her royalties from this book.This book establishes the foundation for the nursing profession(Russia vs Britian, France, Sardinia, and Turkey) Russia attacked turkey, russia naval power destoryed at the black sea
541854 heard of Crimean War (between Britain & Russia) Men happy to have cleaner hospitals and good food.Florence cared for the soldiers by walking round at night and checking they were alrightThe Lady withthe LampBad conditions during war for injured (hurt) soldiersMost soldiers sent to TurkeySo, soldiers called Florence...Florence got supplies and a group of nurses to go and help
55Florence NightingaleIn 1854 the Crimean War broke out – England was at war with RussiaPeople in England heard that soldiers in hospitals were poorly treated.Florence was invited to take a group of 38 female nurses to work in hospitals in the Crimea.
56Florence became famous when war ended in 1856 Queen Victoria wanted to meet her.1860Florence set up theNightingale School of Nursing in LondonLots of people wanted her help and adviceShe died in 1910
57Florence NightingaleFlorence is remembered today as the person responsible for improving conditions in hospitals and making nursing an acceptable job
58Why was Florence called ‘The Lady with the Lamp’? …because Florence cared for the soldiers by walking round at night and checking they were alright.She gave them good food to eat.
59The Men of Biology Louis Pasteur Confirmed the theory of diseases Introduced the process of pasteurizationFirst to create a vaccine against rabiesDisproved the theory of spontaneous generation
60Medical Breakthroughs Preventing DiseaseBreakthroughs in late 1800s as result of scientific advances earlier in centuryFundamental concepts of disease, medical care, sanitation revealedMysteries of what caused diseases began to be solvedMicrobes and DiseaseLouis Pasteur showed link between the two, 1870Disproved spontaneous generation concept of bacteria from nonliving matterShowed bacteria always present though unseen, can reproduceFermentationBacteria in the air causes grape juice to turn to wine, milk to sourHeating liquids, foods can kill bacteria, prevent fermentationProcess became known as pasteurization, makes foods germ-free
61Medical Breakthroughs AnthraxDeadly disease a constant threat to people, livestockPasteur sought to prevent anthraxInjected animals with vaccine containing weakened anthrax germsAntibodiesVaccine worked because body builds antibodiesAntibodies fight weakened germs when they enter bodyRabiesPasteur’s next goalDeveloped vaccine, 1885Saved life of young boy bitten by rabid dog
62Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1881) He proved that air contains living organisms (bacteria)That these microbes can produce putrefactionThat these microbes could be killed by the heating of the liquid they were in - sterilization by high temperature -> PasteurizationHe proved that the old idea that diseases start out of nothing (spontaneous generation) was inaccurate and that micro-organisms cause disease.Demonstrates the presence of bacteria in air and explains how disease can be transmitted by airborne route.Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Lille. At this time, Lille was the centre of alcohol manufacture in France. In 1856, Pasteur received a visit from a man called Bigo who worked at a factory that made alcohol from sugar beet. Bigo’s problem was that many of his vats of fermented beer were turning sour and, as a result, the beer had gone off and had to be thrown away. After using a microscope to analyze samples from the vats, Pasteur found thousands of tiny micro-organisms. Pasteur believed that they caused the putrefaction of the beer. He then studies other liquids such as milk and vinegar.
63Louis Pasteur: 1822 – 1895AD French Developed the theory that the bacteria we call germs caused disease and not bad smellsFound out how to preserve wine by heating it to kill germs---pasteurizationFound the causes of anthrax and choleraDiscovered how to weaken germs by heating them up until they are damaged and can no longer multiplyHe used this to develop vaccinations for rabies
64Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Stereochemistist: molecular asymmetry Stereochemistist: molecular asymmetryFermentation and silk worker disease, Pasteurisation ,Germ Theory of diseaseThus started microbilogyAttenuated vaccines for cholera, anthrax, and rabiesOn July 4, 1886, 9-year-old Joseph Meister was bitten repeatedly by a rabid dog. Pasteur treated him with his attenuated rabies vaccine two days later. Meister survived.Joseph Meister later become a gatekeeper for the Pasteur Institute. In 1940, when he was ordered by the German occupiers to open Pasteur's crypt, Joseph Meister refused and committed suicide!· Another way to look at Louis Pasteur:THE DREAM AND LIE OF LOUIS PASTEURby R. B. Pearson
65Pasteur’s contributions · First, championed changes in hospital practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes.· Second, discovered that weakened forms of a microbe could be used to immunize against more virulent forms of the microbe.· Third, found that rabies was transmitted by agents so small they could not be seen under a microscope, thus revealing the world of viruses. As a result he developed techniques to vaccinate dogs against rabies, and to treat humans bitten by rabid dogs.· And fourth, developed "pasteurization," a process by which harmful microbes in perishable food products are destroyed by heat, without destroying the food.
66Pasteur and the Defeat of Spontaneous Generation Louis Pasteur ( )Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process (originally thought to be purely chemical)Disproved theory of spontaneous generationLed to the development of methods for controlling the growth of microorganismsDeveloped vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies
67The Defeat of Spontaneous Generation: Pasteur’s Experiment
68What Causes Fermentation? Spoiled wine threatening livelihood of vintners, so they funded research into how to promote production of alcohol, but prevent spoilage by acid during fermentationSome believed air caused fermentation reactions, while others insisted living organisms caused fermentationThis debate also linked to debate over spontaneous generation
69Pasteur’s Experiments on Pasteurization Figure 1.14
70Pasteur Strikes it Lucky Impressed by Jenner’s work on SmallpoxBut Jenner and Pasteur did not understand how vaccination workedTrial and errorChicken Cholera, 1879Common disease affecting farmers livestockPasteur experiments with injecting weaker forms of disease into chickensLittle successHis team goes home for the summerOn return, they accidentally use a strain that had been left uncovered for the whole summerIt works!Exposure to the air had weakened the germs“Chance only favours the mind which is prepared”
72Medical Breakthroughs Treatment of InfectionsMany surgical patients died from infectionsEnglish surgeon Joseph Lister, 1860sBegan cleaning wounds and equipment with antiseptic containing carbolic acidReduced post-surgery deaths in one hospital ward from 45 to 15 percent
73Joseph Lister Joseph Lister (1827 - 1912) A Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, he was very aware that many people survived the trauma of an operation but died afterwards of what was known as ‘ward fever’Work on ward cleanliness and the link between germs and good post-operative health had already been studied by a Hungarian doctor called Ignaz Semmelweiss.He argued that if a doctor went from one patient to another after doing surgery, that doctor would pass on to the next visited patient a potentially life threatening disease.He insisted that those doctors who worked for him wash their hands in calcium chloride after an operation and before visiting a new patient -> Introduces antiseptic surgeryAt the time, it was not known that the infections were caused by bacteriaIn 1865, Lister read about the work done by Louis Pasteur on how wine was soured.Lister believed that it was microbes carried in the air that caused diseases to be spread in wards. People who had been operated on were especially vulnerable as their bodies were weak and their skin had been cut open so that germs could get into the body with more ease
74Early needs and success for disinfection (Early 1800’s) —— a historic story almost half of post-operative patients died of sepsis (then called “hospital disease”). A common report by surgeons was: operation successful but patient died.By mid-1800’s,A hypothesis: ① exposing moist body tissue to oxygen sepsis; ② best prevention: keeping air away from wounds by means of plasters, collodion or resins.Having tried methods to encourage clean healing with no success, surgeon Joseph Lister discarded the concept of direct infection by bad air but postulated that sepsis might be caused by a 'pollen-like dust‘, although he did not know yet the “dust” was living microbes.When Louis Pasteur suggested the presence of living organisms in the air, Lister made the connection with wound sepsis: the microbes in the air were likely causing the sepsis and should be destroyed before they entered the wound.Lister had previously heard that 'carbolic acid' was used to treat sewage, and that fields treated with the affluent were freed of a parasite causing disease in cattle. He then began to clean wounds and dress them with carbolic acid..
75Biography A doctor who was Born in Prussia in 1843 Interested in Pasteur’s Germ TheoryHe received a Microscope as a present in 1873Franco – Prussian RivalryFranco-Prussian War 1870/1German Government gave Koch money to set up a research institute to rival PasteurRead Dialogue page 130
76Robert KochIn the late 19th century two of the most dangerous killer diseases were cholera and tuberculosis.Cholera was nicknamed 'King Cholera' because no one seemed to be able to cure it.Tuberculosis was known as the 'White Death' because sufferers vomited up white matter as their lungs disintegrated.The man who made a breakthrough in the fight against these diseases was Robert Koch.
77Who Was Robert Koch?Koch was a German scientist, born in Hanover in 1843.Koch read Louis Pasteur's work and in 1872 began research into the microbes affecting diseased animals and people.
78What made Koch famousIn 1878 Koch discovered that microbes cause wounds to go septic, but his big breakthrough came when he decided to stain microbes with dye, enabling him to photograph them under a microscope.Using this method he was able to study them more effectively and prove that every disease was caused by a different germs.He identified the microbes that caused tuberculosis in 1882 and cholera in 1883.
79How did he do this?Koch's discoveries were the result of careful research and observation using the microscope, photography and dyes.As a result of his work, the German government also set up an 'Institute of Infectious Diseases' in Berlin in 1891 for medical research and development.These developments set the pattern for the future.In the 20th century medical research has increasingly involved teams of researchers supported by large public or private funds.
80· Discovered the tubercle bacillus and tuberculin. Robert Koch ( )· German physician; also started to work on Anthrax in 1870's. Identified the spore stage. First time the causative agent of an infectious disease was identified.· Koch's postulates: conditions that must be satisfied before accepting that particular bacteria cause particular diseases.· Discovered the tubercle bacillus and tuberculin.Detailed tuberculin skin test (DTH).Awarded 1905 Nobel Prize.
81Isolating the Germs that caused Anthrax Explain how 1 Sheep and 20 generations of mice allowed Koch to prove that a particular germ caused Anthrax. Explain why he succeeded?
82Germ CulturesKoch’s isolation technique pioneered the use of culture platesHe extracted the blood from an infected animalHe found that if he injected an animal with the infected blood it would catch the disease much quickerThe more times he did this the stronger the disease would becomeEventually, this germ could be extracted and be encouraged to breed a pure form in a glass culture plate.
83The Floodgates openUsing Koch’s methods, other scientists were able to isolate and identify the germs that caused particular diseasesList the causes of diseases discovered in the 1880s and 1890sHowever, knowing the cause of these diseases still did not help to treat any sick patients, yet.
84Robert Koch Robert Koch (1843-1910) Koch’s postulates Definitively demonstrated the link between microbes and infectious diseasesIdentified causative agents of anthrax and tuberculosisDeveloped techniques (solid media) for obtaining pure cultures of microbes, some still in existence todayAwarded Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1905Koch’s postulates
85Koch’s PostulatesThe microbe must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy organismsThe suspected microbe must be isolated and grown in a pure cultureThe same disease must result when the isolated microbe is inoculated into a healthy hostThe same microbe must be isolated again from the diseased host
86Koch’s Postulates Koch’s Postulates The suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals.The suspected organism should be grown in pure culture—that is, a culture containing a single kind of microorganism.Cells from a pure culture of the suspected organism should cause disease in a healthy animal.The organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original.
87Koch’s Postulates Koch’s Postulates The suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals.The suspected organism should be grown in pure culture—that is, a culture containing a single kind of microorganism.Cells from a pure culture of the suspected organism should cause disease in a healthy animal.The organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original.
88Robert Koch Robert Koch (1843 - 1910) Koch was a German doctor, influenced by Pasteur's work. In 1872, he began research into the microbes affecting animals and people.The first animal disease that Koch investigated was anthrax. Koch found out that the anthrax microbe produced spores that lived for a long time after an animal had died. He also proved that these spores could then develop into the anthrax germ and could infect other animals.Koch also devised a method of proving which germ caused an infection: Koch PostulatesHe perfected the technique of growing pure cultures of germs using a mix of potatoes and gelatine. This was a solid enough substance to allow for the germs to be studied better.In 1882 he identified the bacteria causing tuberculosis (TB).In 1883, he identified the bacteria causing cholera.By 1900, twenty-one germs that caused diseases had been identified in just 21 yearsCholera - bacterial disease of small intestine from contaminated waterPasteur suspected this but could not prove it
89Koch’s Postulates (1884)Suspect pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animalsSuspect organism should be grown in pure cultureCells from a pure culture of suspect organism should cause disease in healthy animalOrganism should be reisolated and shown to be same as the original
90Results of his Research The scientific evidence of microbes helped reformers in public health prove that pollution spread disease.It meant certain kinds of action could be taken to prevent certain types of disease, since cholera was carried in water, for example, its spread could be prevented with clean water supplies.
91Long Term ImportanceKoch was responsible for establishing the new 'Science of Modern Bacteriology'.By 1900 he and his students had identified 21 germs causing diseases.Koch's assistant, Emil Behring, developed the first anti-toxin that could help to destroy the poison spread by bacteria in the blood stream.Koch's research on bacteria won him the Nobel Prize in 1905.
92The Men of Biology Sir Alexander Fleming - Isolated and discover the antibiotic properties of penicillin.