Presentation on theme: "Renaissance Breakthroughs Theoretical Advances. The Birth of the Renaissance Renaissance –Rebirth –Revisit Classical ideas Want to copy Greek and Roman."— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance Breakthroughs Theoretical Advances
The Birth of the Renaissance Renaissance –Rebirth –Revisit Classical ideas Want to copy Greek and Roman styles –Fall of Byzantium, 1453 Classically trained scholars flee Turks Move to Italy –Reconquest of Spain Library of Cordoba –Italian City States Competition to outdo each other
Improving on the Classical World New technologies / techniques available Growing confidence Re-examine Original Latin and Greek Texts –Notice some errors / inconsistencies Attempt to improve on Classical techniques Inquisitive and experimental
How to re-examine the world Investigation –Columbus Hmmm, I wonder if I can prove the world is round? Observation –Copernicus The stars and planets are moving in the wrong direction if the earth is the centre of the Universe Experimentation –Galileo Hmmm, If I put these two lenses together in a tube, I wonder what will happen.
Renaissance Art Observation –Examine nature itself How does nature work? Studied plants, animals –Experimentation Anatomy –Leonardo da Vinci –Dissected 10 bodies
Challenging Christianity The Reformation –Martin Luther 1517 –Challenges Catholic Church and the Pope –Copernicus Scientific contradiction of Christian teachings –Can the Christian church’s judgement be trusted on medical matters?
Why does this breakthrough last? Printing Press –Gutenberg 1452 Bible –Very cheap and easy to spread ideas –Challenges Catholic Church’s control over the spread of information Monks handwritten manuscripts
Paracelsus Full Name: –Aureolus Phillipus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim University Lecturer in Basel, Switzerland Challenged Galen –Burnt Galen’s books in front of his students “Galen is a liar and a fake; Avicenna is a kitchen master. They are good for nothing. You will not need them. Reading never made a physician. Patients are the only books.” –Disagreed with 4 Humour Theory Put forward the idea that the body was attacked from outside –Use minerals & magic to help protect the body »Mercury, Laudanum, iron and Sulphur
Padua Anatomical Theatre Padua in Italy Premier Medical Facility in Europe More willing to dissect cadavers However, cadavers still in short supply Up to 300 observers All observers within 10 metres of table
Andreas Vesalius Studied in Paris Observed gallows victims and decaying bodies of criminals –Smuggled parts home Became professor of Padua at 23 Conducted dissections himself –Students told to study the body for themselves rather than rely on others. De Fabrica published in 1543 –Pointed out Galen’s errors Jaw bone –Printing press allowed it to be made available to a wide audience
Ambroise Pare Surgical Advances Barber-Surgeon in French Army Advance One –Problem Surgeons cauterised gunshot wounds with boiling oil (to stop lead poisoning) –Painful –Shock –Infection –Crisis Ran out of oil –Solution Do not cauterise Use natural ointment –Used by Romans
Ambroise Pare Advance Two –Problem Cauterisation used to stop bleeding on cut wounds / amputations –Shock –Pain –Infection –Solution Ligatures –Use silk thread and needles to sew up bleeding vessels »Infection still a problem Question 1-4 page 87
William Harvey Student at Padua Challenged Galen’s idea of new blood being created –experiments to show that blood flowed in one direction Animals Cadavers Proved that heart was a pump –Blood recirculates –Calculated volume of blood Published results showing his proof Problem: Capillaries? How useful was his discovery?
Page 90 Use handout to help answer questions 1 to 5 Homework