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Near-field Cosmology from the Andromeda galaxy and subgroup Scott C. Chapman IoA, University of Cambridge With: R.Ibata, M.Irwin, G.Lewis, A.Ferguson,

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Presentation on theme: "Near-field Cosmology from the Andromeda galaxy and subgroup Scott C. Chapman IoA, University of Cambridge With: R.Ibata, M.Irwin, G.Lewis, A.Ferguson,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Near-field Cosmology from the Andromeda galaxy and subgroup Scott C. Chapman IoA, University of Cambridge With: R.Ibata, M.Irwin, G.Lewis, A.Ferguson, N.Tanvir, N.Martin, A.McConnachie, J. Penarrubia, M. Collins, D. Trethewey Scott C. Chapman IoA, University of Cambridge With: R.Ibata, M.Irwin, G.Lewis, A.Ferguson, N.Tanvir, N.Martin, A.McConnachie, J. Penarrubia, M. Collins, D. Trethewey

2 Outline The M31 outer disk The M31 outer halo: The “first” galaxy (later:) Dwarf galaxy satellites of M31 (and the Milky Way) Is And-XII a “true” fossil? Minimum DM halo mass? The M31 outer disk The M31 outer halo: The “first” galaxy (later:) Dwarf galaxy satellites of M31 (and the Milky Way) Is And-XII a “true” fossil? Minimum DM halo mass?

3 Context: Hierarchical Galaxy Formation - Little galaxies merge to make big galaxies … - How/when are the galaxy components assembled? Big Bang … Cosmic Microwave Background … … Galaxy Formation and Evolution … Fossil Records today! Big Bang … Cosmic Microwave Background … … Galaxy Formation and Evolution … Fossil Records today! Local galaxies (MW, Andromeda) are ideal laboratories to study archeology.

4 Bullock et al. (2005) Model/Approach: 3. Embed stars in the center of accreted dark matter halo. 1. Construct accretion histories for Milky-Way type halos using semi- analytic “merger tree”. 2. For each accreted system, model its previous star formation history based on expected mass growth history 4. Follow evolution within the (growing) host halo

5 Observational Requirements: 1.) Spatial coverage. 2.) Radial velocities. 3.) Chemical distribution. 4.) Ages ?? Bullock+2005, Font+2006 Predictions: 1.) Substructure in halo. 2.) Chemically distinct outer halo. Bullock+2005, Font+2006 Predictions: 1.) Substructure in halo. 2.) Chemically distinct outer halo.

6 Bullock+,Font+,Johnston+ model is our best current prediction for MW/M31. (Changing with Aquarius -- Springel et al )

7 Observational Tests: Local Galaxy Archeology (Milky Way, Andromeda, satellites) Dissecting the history of a galaxy by digging up its stars 1 by 1: Near-Field cosmology -where are missing satellites -are DM profiles universal? (cuspy NFW?) -DM: extent, nature, spatial distribution -how were MW and M31 constructed: typical disks? -role of accretion in formation of halo, disk, bulge? -stars maintain birth statistical pattern -chemical evolution proceeds in 1 direction

8 Imaging and Spectroscopic study of Andromeda -- M31

9 M31 (M33) Fossil Record of Galaxy Formation: Using the Keck 10m / DEIMOS spectrograph: … dissect components & piece together the evolutionary history (Ibata+ 04,05,06; Chapman+ 04,05,06; McConnachie+04,06) Classical (Palomar) view of M31 Modern (wide-field CCD) view of M31: a train wreck! (Irwin+05) 6 degrees (12 full moons) 100 kpc

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11 age in Gyr mass fraction Abadi, Navarro, Steinmetz & Eke 2003 Fine structure of simulated galaxies thin disk thick disk spheroid

12 Building the Spheroid (Bullock+06)

13 Imaging Surveys: INT2.5m widefield survey of M31 CFHT/MegaCam halo survey of entire M31 halo out to 150kpc Initiated w/ Keck/DEIMOS: Sept 2002 Status Nov, 2008 Number of Nights : 21 (70% usable) Number of Fields : 75 Limiting I-mag < 22 Candidate M31 Spectra: ~14,000 (and ~6000 Milky Way foreground stars) Data products: ~5-10km/s velocity determination, (Calcium Triplet, cross-correlation) [Fe/H] measurement by EWs of CaT Fainter lines of other species … Ibata et al. (2004,2005); Chapman et al. (2005,2006,2008) M31 K inematics a nd M etallicity E xperiment

14 Surprise! the “messy halo” of stars surrounding M31 is actually a giant rotating disk! (not a train wreck halo) (Ibata et al. 2005)

15 DEIMOS spectra

16 Technique: Sort stars by kinematics disk halo Velocity distribution of all stars 1hour Keck exposures Apply disk model (flat rotation curve to >70kpc) A new ``extended disk'' galaxy component  Discovered that all structures participate in giant rotating disk

17 Separation of outer disk/halo in velocity disk Outer disk of stars rotates like the inner disk ~15% of light of inner disk >40% of angular momentum! Irregular morphology, lots of substructure … transitory? (Ibata+2005, Chapman+2006) Star velocities in giant disk Distance (Major Axis)40kpc

18 Separation of outer disk/halo in velocity disk What’s left? A primeval “Halo” of stars! -few heavy metals (formed early) -An relic of M31’s beginning  v = 125 km/s Monotonic decrease in  v(R) No rotation. Detectable “spikey” substructure? (Chapman, et al. 2006; 2009 in prep) halo

19 Mass of M31 from Halo stars First assume simple rotating isothermal halo: not rotating, and 125km/s  v Then ignore rotation and allow  v to decrease linearly with projected R. Monotonic decline in  v with radius … better fit.

20 Mass of M31 from Halo stars Monotonic decline in sigma_v with radius - ignore stream spikes … (Trethewey+08) Fit to an NFW dark matter halo (assuming the stars are a reasonable tracer of the halo: And taking Klypin et al limit for concentration (caveats) M_virial > 9e11 Msun, 99% confidence. Consistent with other estimates of M31’s DM halo mass (satellites - Evans&Wilkinson, giant stream - Ibata,Chapman et al. 2004)

21 All fields have similar average metallicities [Fe/H] ~ -1.0 [sigma=0.4] - More metal rich than MW halo. Average “extended disk” star from 15kpc - 70kpc probing similar global star population! Compare HALO and DISK chemistry: R~70kpc Extended Disk - Metallicities Average spectrum at each Keck position

22 fields have average metallicities [Fe/H] = -1.4 [  =0.2] Stars selected like those in MW halo (non-rotating), have similar metallicity and velocity distribution. NFW model fit => 10^12 Msun Solves “puzzle” of metal-rich halo in M31! R=10-70kpc Stellar Halo: Metallicities Average spectrum at each Keck position

23 Metal Poor halo: no abundance gradient Halo radial Fe/H constant: detect the metal-poor halo component from 50kpc right up to 17kpc … as opposed to minor axis where velocities of all components overlap in the M31 systemic velocity range. consistent with Koch et al Giant stream

24 Koch et al. (2007): M31 minor axis from kpc combined M.Rich & S.Chapman Keck-DEIMOS data Abundance transition at 20kpc: metal-rich to metal-poor … inconsistent with previous sparsely sampled minor axis study ( Kalirai et al ).

25 M33 (1/10 the mass of M31 and MW) kinematically selected halo Keck/DEIMOS M31 halo study … on edge of disk/halo transition from Ibata et al. (2007) Keck spectra find: 1) Metal poor halo Fe/H = ) Extended disk 3) Unknown “stream” ( McConnachie+06, Trethewey+09)

26 “Mouhcine plot” VERY HARD to see metal-poor primordial halos in more distant galaxies without kinematics! L vs Fe/H correlated in spiral galaxy halos? (Mouhcine+05) Kinematically selected Halos in M31 (Chapman+06) M33 (McConnachie+06) MW (Chiba&Beers+00,01) … all Fe/H ~ -1.5 Are we comparing apples with apples in distant (10Mpc) spiral galaxies? Dots are Renda+05 model

27 Conclusions In halos of big (L*) Spiral galaxies (M31), extended rotating components may be common => difficult to interpret more distant galaxies without kinematics Beginning to understand the primeval halo of M31 (and the MW …), versus later accretions. More work required to understand substructure and mass function of first accretions In halos of big (L*) Spiral galaxies (M31), extended rotating components may be common => difficult to interpret more distant galaxies without kinematics Beginning to understand the primeval halo of M31 (and the MW …), versus later accretions. More work required to understand substructure and mass function of first accretions Halo stars in front of M31, outer edge of the MW halo Growing discoveries of dSph galaxies (and their characterizations) are an excellent testbed of galaxy evolution and cosmology.

28 Halo stars in front of M31

29 CDM Has a Missing Satellite Problem V.Springel et al CDM predicts large numbers of subhalos (~ for a Milky Way-sized galaxy) Milky Way only has 23 known satellites M31 has 25 satellites What happened to the rest of them?

30 CDM predicts large numbers of subhalos (~ for a Milky Way-sized galaxy) Many never form stars V.Springel et al CDM Has a Missing Satellite Problem

31 What is a dwarf Fossil*? *defined by Ricotti & Gnedin (2005) Survivors (M > 10 9 M  ) * star formation started after reionization * mostly dIrr, some dE LMC M32 Polluted fossils (M ~ /9 M  ) * significant star formation after reionization * tidal effects from host cause additional bursts * dSph and dE Pegasus True fossils (M ~ /9 M  ) * < 30% of stars formed after reionization * never accreted gas from the IGM * dSph Cetus (Whiting et al. 1999)

32 Fossil Properties Ricotti & Gnedin (2005), Bovill et al. (2007) R02a,b predictions. Known survivors Known polluted fossils Known true fossils New ultra-faint dwarfs ~ Scatter in Z due to: - pollution from nearby halos - multiple bursts of star formation ( ie. Stinson et al (2007) ) ~ Fossil properties at z = 0 are simply related to their properties at reionization.

33 Formation and Evolution of dwarf galaxies Environment of dwarfs severely affects their properties. Most dwarfs have been orbiting around our Local environment for most of the age of the Universe (>10 Billion years) Environment of dwarfs severely affects their properties. Most dwarfs have been orbiting around our Local environment for most of the age of the Universe (>10 Billion years) McConnachie & Irwin 2005

34 CDM predicts late accreting DM halos But we’ve never seen one … have any of them formed stars? Dwarf Galaxies still bringing in primeval material? But we’ve never seen one … have any of them formed stars? Dwarf Galaxies still bringing in primeval material?

35 Late accretions: Objects that accrete late do so from larger average distances than those that accrete early. late accreting objects interesting both observationally and theoretically spent the majority of their lives in different environments, far from the disruptive tidal forces of larger galaxies, a direct prediction of the theoretical CDM model for structure formation. Objects that accrete late do so from larger average distances than those that accrete early. late accreting objects interesting both observationally and theoretically spent the majority of their lives in different environments, far from the disruptive tidal forces of larger galaxies, a direct prediction of the theoretical CDM model for structure formation. 4% today Ludlow et al. 2009

36 Dwarf Galaxies still bringing in primeval material? DISCOVERY of AndXII, a faint Dwarf galaxy building up the Local Group environment: falling in for the first time! Direct observational evidence for the hierarchical formation of the Local Group. Insights into processes responsible for the dynamical evolution of dwarfs? (Chapman et al. 2007)

37 “Mateo” Plot Simplest possible model: equilibrium, spherical, isotropic systems where M follows L (c.f. Strigari et al. 2007) Do all dwarfs live in similar halos? Is there a minimum mass for dwarfs? Simplest possible model: equilibrium, spherical, isotropic systems where M follows L (c.f. Strigari et al. 2007) Do all dwarfs live in similar halos? Is there a minimum mass for dwarfs? Kinematics in dwarfs: MW: Martin+07; Simon+07 M31: Chapman+05,07; Collins+08; Letarte+08 And more to be studied/discovered … And17,18,19,20,21 (Irwin+08, McConnachie+08)  Globular star clusters, no DM  And12 And13 And11 And16 And15

38 Two basic sets of possible solutions: Modifications to CDM What modifications? Power spectrum, DM particle mass/decay/interaction cross- section? Astrophysics prevents stars from forming in most low-mass halos Reionization, feedback, winds … Two basic sets of possible solutions: Modifications to CDM What modifications? Power spectrum, DM particle mass/decay/interaction cross- section? Astrophysics prevents stars from forming in most low-mass halos Reionization, feedback, winds … What Does This Problem Tell Us?

39 Angular Momentum (J) Catastrophe Sizes of galactic disks linked to J of parent DM halos (Fall & Efstathiou 1980) distribution of halo spin parameters ( N-body simulations, e.g. Bullock+ 2001) baryons and dark matter initially share the same distribution of specific angular momentum, j, within the halos (e.g. van den Bosch etal. 2002) j is conserved as the baryons contract to form the disk (e.g. Mestel 1963). Disk sizes with these assumptions, roughly comparable to those observed. But, Hydrodynamics shows this process is invalid. => significant fraction of J of the baryons *is* transferred to DM, … disk sizes 10x too small! (Navarro & Steinmetz 2000) SOLUTION? Feedback … remove incoming dwarf galaxy low-j baryons (Maller&Dekel 2003)

40 Forming the Edisk How to further increase angular moomentum by 50% ??? Accretion origin to extended disk? (Penarrubia+06) BUT: Requires specialized conditions; large in-plane accretion(s); … would be consistent with observations

41 Evolving Fossils to z = 0 Fossil properties at z = 0 are simply related to their properties at reionization. Properties of the new Sloan and M31 dwarfs agree well with predictions for primordial galaxies Fossil properties at z = 0 are simply related to their properties at reionization. Properties of the new Sloan and M31 dwarfs agree well with predictions for primordial galaxies


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