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Common Biological Laboratory Animals and equipment Prepared by Ms. Bryant.

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Presentation on theme: "Common Biological Laboratory Animals and equipment Prepared by Ms. Bryant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Biological Laboratory Animals and equipment Prepared by Ms. Bryant

2 Laboratory Organisms There are many living organisms used in Biology. This powerpoint will help familiarize you with most of them. There are many living organisms used in Biology. This powerpoint will help familiarize you with most of them.

3 Viruses The most common viruses used in Biology are bacteriophages – viruses which attack only bacteria. Viruses cannot "live" or reproduce without getting inside some living cell, whether it's a plant, animal, or bacteria. Viruses are very small compared to bacteria. The most common viruses used in Biology are bacteriophages – viruses which attack only bacteria. Viruses cannot "live" or reproduce without getting inside some living cell, whether it's a plant, animal, or bacteria. Viruses are very small compared to bacteria.

4 Prokaryotes Prokaryotes are single- celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Bacteria are the prokaryotes usually used in Biology. Prokaryotes are single- celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Bacteria are the prokaryotes usually used in Biology. Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli (E. coli) (these bacteria live in our bodies)

5 Prokaryotes There are many helpful bacteria. There are many helpful bacteria. Bacteria can: Bacteria can: convert atmospheric nitrogen to forms that plants can use convert atmospheric nitrogen to forms that plants can use nitrogen recycle nutrients recycle nutrients produce yogurt produce yogurt treat sewage treat sewage provide medical drugs. provide medical drugs.

6 Prokaryotes Some bacteria are harmful. Some bacteria are harmful. Bacteria can: Bacteria can: Cause human diseases such as Salmonella (food poisoning) and tuberculosis (TB). Cause human diseases such as Salmonella (food poisoning) and tuberculosis (TB). Cause animal and plant diseases such as anthrax and blights. Cause animal and plant diseases such as anthrax and blights.

7 Simple organisms Lichen are a mutualistic relationship between algae and fungi. A mutualistic relationship is helpful to both organisms. Lichen are a mutualistic relationship between algae and fungi. A mutualistic relationship is helpful to both organisms.

8 Algae Algae are simple plants; many are single cells. They are photosynthetic and make their own food. Plankton and kelp (seaweed) are examples of algae. Algae are simple plants; many are single cells. They are photosynthetic and make their own food. Plankton and kelp (seaweed) are examples of algae.

9 Fungi Fungi (a fungus) is member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds as well as the more familiar mushrooms. Fungi (a fungus) is member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds as well as the more familiar mushrooms.eukaryoticyeastsmoldsmushroomseukaryoticyeastsmoldsmushrooms

10 more fungi The fungus Neurospora crassa, is used in in genetics studies. The fungus Neurospora crassa, is used in in genetics studies.Neurospora crassaNeurospora crassa

11 more fungi The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the microscopic yeast we are most familiar with. It is the yeast used to make bread, beer and wine. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the microscopic yeast we are most familiar with. It is the yeast used to make bread, beer and wine.

12 Plants The common pea Pisum sativum, has been used in studying genetics. They are also fun to eat. The common pea Pisum sativum, has been used in studying genetics. They are also fun to eat.

13 Daphnia Daphnia are sometimes called water fleas because they jump around in the water. They are small but you can just see them with your eyes. They are used in experments. Daphnia are sometimes called water fleas because they jump around in the water. They are small but you can just see them with your eyes. They are used in experments.

14 Drosophila Drosophila or the common fruit fly are often used in genetics experiments. They are small, breed very quickly and are easy to handle. You need a dissecting microscope to see any details on the fruit fly. Drosophila or the common fruit fly are often used in genetics experiments. They are small, breed very quickly and are easy to handle. You need a dissecting microscope to see any details on the fruit fly.

15 Frogs This is the common grass frog or leopard frog. While it is cute; we usually only see preserved frogs and use them for dissection. They have very similar body parts to humans (really!!) This is the common grass frog or leopard frog. While it is cute; we usually only see preserved frogs and use them for dissection. They have very similar body parts to humans (really!!)

16 Mus musculus or common mouse The common lab mouse is the most common type of lab animal. They are commonly used in research projects to test medications and are easy to handle and reproduce quickly. The common lab mouse is the most common type of lab animal. They are commonly used in research projects to test medications and are easy to handle and reproduce quickly.

17 Mus musculus Lab mice are mammals and are very similar to humans so are useful in dissections and lab trials of new medications. Lab mice are mammals and are very similar to humans so are useful in dissections and lab trials of new medications.

18 Rattus norvegicus The common lab rat can be either Rattus norvegicus or Rattus rattus depending on the color. These versatile mammals are also very useful as research subjects. The common lab rat can be either Rattus norvegicus or Rattus rattus depending on the color. These versatile mammals are also very useful as research subjects.

19 Common Biology apparatus, tools and instruments Prepared by Ms. Bryant

20 Microscopes There are two types of microscopes commonly used in Biology. This is a dissecting microscope. It is used for whole larger specimens such as flies or plants. There are two types of microscopes commonly used in Biology. This is a dissecting microscope. It is used for whole larger specimens such as flies or plants.

21 Microscopes The other type of microscope is used to magnify very small items like cells, tissues or bacteria. The other type of microscope is used to magnify very small items like cells, tissues or bacteria.

22 Magnifying glass When specimens do not need to be magnified very much; you may use a magnifying glass. When specimens do not need to be magnified very much; you may use a magnifying glass.

23 Incubator Incubators are used to keep specimens at the same temperature. It helps them stay alive and grow. Incubators are used to keep specimens at the same temperature. It helps them stay alive and grow.

24 Bacteria A specimen which may need to stay in an incubator are bacteria cultures. These bacteria are being grown in test tubes. A specimen which may need to stay in an incubator are bacteria cultures. These bacteria are being grown in test tubes.

25 Bacteria These are bacteria being grown in petri plates. These are plastic (or glass) plates which fit together closed. These are bacteria being grown in petri plates. These are plastic (or glass) plates which fit together closed.

26 Safety Equipment Safety equipment may be necessary for some labs. This student is wearing safety goggles and an apron. Safety equipment may be necessary for some labs. This student is wearing safety goggles and an apron.

27 Ring stand Lab equipment may need to be held for heating or observations. This is a ring stand with two rings. Rings can hold flasks or beakers. Lab equipment may need to be held for heating or observations. This is a ring stand with two rings. Rings can hold flasks or beakers.

28 Terrarium A terrarium is used to grow plants in a controlled environment. A terrarium is used to grow plants in a controlled environment.

29 Vivarium A vivarium is a terrarium (with plants) that is also used as a controlled habitat for an animal or two. A vivarium is a terrarium (with plants) that is also used as a controlled habitat for an animal or two.

30 Aquarium An aquarium is a tank filled with water and fish and plants. Some aquariums are freshwater and others are salt water (marine) tanks. An aquarium is a tank filled with water and fish and plants. Some aquariums are freshwater and others are salt water (marine) tanks.

31 Dissection This is a dissecting tray. It is used to hold specimens as they are being dissected. This is a dissecting tray. It is used to hold specimens as they are being dissected.

32 Dissection Tools are need to dissect. We do not touch the specimens with our hands. Here are a scalpel, tweezers, scissors, an eye dropper and a ruler. Tools are need to dissect. We do not touch the specimens with our hands. Here are a scalpel, tweezers, scissors, an eye dropper and a ruler.

33 Thermometers

34 Thermometers Thermometers are used to measure the temperature. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance. Thermometers are used to measure the temperature. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance.

35 pH meter A pH meter is used to measure pH. pH measures the amount of H+ ions in a solution and is a measure of how acidic a solution is. A pH meter is used to measure pH. pH measures the amount of H+ ions in a solution and is a measure of how acidic a solution is. Acid pH is from 0 to 6; 7 is neutral and alkaline (basic) is from 8 to 14. Acid pH is from 0 to 6; 7 is neutral and alkaline (basic) is from 8 to 14.

36 pH meter

37 pH pH can also be measured with pH paper. The color of the paper shows the pH level. pH can also be measured with pH paper. The color of the paper shows the pH level.

38 pH pH can also be shown with litmus paper. pH can also be shown with litmus paper. Red litmus paper turns blue in bases while blue litmus paper turns red in acids. It does not show the exact pH. Red litmus paper turns blue in bases while blue litmus paper turns red in acids. It does not show the exact pH.

39 pH pH can also be measured with portable electronic probes. pH can also be measured with portable electronic probes.

40 Filtration Solids and liquids can be separated from each other by using filtration. Solids and liquids can be separated from each other by using filtration. A filter paper is placed into a funnel and the liquid passes through the filter paper and the solid remains in the paper. A filter paper is placed into a funnel and the liquid passes through the filter paper and the solid remains in the paper.

41 Hot plate An electronic hot plate can be used to heat substances. An electronic hot plate can be used to heat substances.

42 Bunsen burner A Bunsen burner can burn gas to heat substances in class. It has a very hot blue flame. A Bunsen burner can burn gas to heat substances in class. It has a very hot blue flame.

43 Balance A balance is used to measure mass in the metric system. This is a single pan balance. A balance is used to measure mass in the metric system. This is a single pan balance.

44 Electronic balance An electronic balance can also be used to measure mass in the lab. An electronic balance can also be used to measure mass in the lab.

45 Graduated cylinders Graduated cylinders are used to measure volume in biology lab. They can be extremely accurate. Remember to read the level of the liquid at the meniscus. Graduated cylinders are used to measure volume in biology lab. They can be extremely accurate. Remember to read the level of the liquid at the meniscus.

46 Erlenmeyer flasks Erlenmeyer flasks are used to transport liquids from one place to another. They are not accurate for measuring volume. They can also be used to hold a funnel. Erlenmeyer flasks are used to transport liquids from one place to another. They are not accurate for measuring volume. They can also be used to hold a funnel.

47 Beakers Beakers are another type of glassware found in biology. Beakers are used to transfer liquids from one place to another. They are not accurate for measuring volume. Beakers are another type of glassware found in biology. Beakers are used to transfer liquids from one place to another. They are not accurate for measuring volume.

48 Timer Timers are often used to help you take readings at appropriate lengths of time. Timers are often used to help you take readings at appropriate lengths of time.

49 Test tubes Glass test tubes in a wooden rack with black rubber stoppers are useful for holding liquids in biology lab. Glass test tubes in a wooden rack with black rubber stoppers are useful for holding liquids in biology lab.

50 Test tube brushes are used to clean and test tube holders help handle hot test tubes.

51 Work cited Carolina Biological 1/22/12 Cells Alive New World Encyclopedia 1/21/12 Wikipedia; 1/21/12


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