Presentation on theme: "Common Biological Laboratory Animals and equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1Common Biological Laboratory Animals and equipment Prepared byMs. Bryant
2Laboratory OrganismsThere are many living organisms used in Biology. This powerpoint will help familiarize you with most of them.
3VirusesThe most common viruses used in Biology are bacteriophages – viruses which attack only bacteria. Viruses cannot "live" or reproduce without getting inside some living cell, whether it's a plant, animal, or bacteria. Viruses are very small compared to bacteria.
4ProkaryotesProkaryotes are single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. Bacteria are the prokaryotes usually used in Biology.Escherichia coli(E. coli) (these bacteria live in our bodies)
5Prokaryotes There are many helpful bacteria. Bacteria can: convert atmospheric nitrogen to forms that plants can userecycle nutrientsproduce yogurttreat sewageprovide medical drugs.
6Prokaryotes Some bacteria are harmful. Bacteria can: Cause human diseases such as Salmonella (food poisoning) and tuberculosis (TB).Cause animal and plant diseases such as anthrax and blights.
7Simple organismsLichen are a mutualistic relationship between algae and fungi. A mutualistic relationship is helpful to both organisms.
8AlgaeAlgae are simple plants; many are single cells. They are photosynthetic and make their own food. Plankton and kelp (seaweed) are examples of algae.
9FungiFungi (a fungus) is member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
10more fungiThe fungus Neurospora crassa , is used in in genetics studies.
11more fungiThe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , is the microscopic yeast we are most familiar with. It is the yeast used to make bread, beer and wine.
12PlantsThe common pea Pisum sativum , has been used in studying genetics. They are also fun to eat.
13DaphniaDaphnia are sometimes called water fleas because they jump around in the water. They are small but you can just see them with your eyes. They are used in experments.
14DrosophilaDrosophila or the common fruit fly are often used in genetics experiments. They are small, breed very quickly and are easy to handle. You need a dissecting microscope to see any details on the fruit fly.
15FrogsThis is the common grass frog or leopard frog. While it is cute; we usually only see preserved frogs and use them for dissection. They have very similar body parts to humans (really!!)
16Mus musculus or common mouse The common lab mouse is the most common type of lab animal. They are commonly used in research projects to test medications and are easy to handle and reproduce quickly.
17Mus musculusLab mice are mammals and are very similar to humans so are useful in dissections and lab trials of new medications.
18Rattus norvegicusThe common lab rat can be either Rattus norvegicus or Rattus rattus depending on the color. These versatile mammals are also very useful as research subjects.
19Common Biology apparatus, tools and instruments Prepared by Ms. Bryant
20MicroscopesThere are two types of microscopes commonly used in Biology. This is a dissecting microscope. It is used for whole larger specimens such as flies or plants.
21MicroscopesThe other type of microscope is used to magnify very small items like cells, tissues or bacteria.
22Magnifying glassWhen specimens do not need to be magnified very much; you may use a magnifying glass.
23IncubatorIncubators are used to keep specimens at the same temperature. It helps them stay alive and grow.
24BacteriaA specimen which may need to stay in an incubator are bacteria cultures. These bacteria are being grown in test tubes.
25BacteriaThese are bacteria being grown in petri plates. These are plastic (or glass) plates which fit together closed.
26Safety EquipmentSafety equipment may be necessary for some labs. This student is wearing safety goggles and an apron.
27Ring standLab equipment may need to be held for heating or observations. This is a ring stand with two rings. Rings can hold flasks or beakers.
28TerrariumA terrarium is used to grow plants in a controlled environment.
29VivariumA vivarium is a terrarium (with plants) that is also used as a controlled habitat for an animal or two.
30AquariumAn aquarium is a tank filled with water and fish and plants. Some aquariums are freshwater and others are salt water (marine) tanks.
31DissectionThis is a dissecting tray. It is used to hold specimens as they are being dissected.
32DissectionTools are need to dissect. We do not touch the specimens with our hands. Here are a scalpel, tweezers, scissors, an eye dropper and a ruler.
34ThermometersThermometers are used to measure the temperature. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance.
35pH meterA pH meter is used to measure pH. pH measures the amount of H+ ions in a solution and is a measure of how acidic a solution is.Acid pH is from 0 to 6; 7 is neutral and alkaline (basic) is from 8 to 14.
37pHpH can also be measured with pH paper. The color of the paper shows the pH level.
38pH pH can also be shown with litmus paper. Red litmus paper turns blue in bases while blue litmus paper turns red in acids. It does not show the exact pH.
39pHpH can also be measured with portable electronic probes.
40FiltrationSolids and liquids can be separated from each other by using filtration.A filter paper is placed into a funnel and the liquid passes through the filter paper and the solid remains in the paper.
41Hot plateAn electronic hot plate can be used to heat substances.
42Bunsen burnerA Bunsen burner can burn gas to heat substances in class. It has a very hot blue flame.
43BalanceA balance is used to measure mass in the metric system. This is a single pan balance.
44Electronic balanceAn electronic balance can also be used to measure mass in the lab.
45Graduated cylindersGraduated cylinders are used to measure volume in biology lab. They can be extremely accurate. Remember to read the level of the liquid at the meniscus.
46Erlenmeyer flasksErlenmeyer flasks are used to transport liquids from one place to another. They are not accurate for measuring volume. They can also be used to hold a funnel.
47BeakersBeakers are another type of glassware found in biology. Beakers are used to transfer liquids from one place to another. They are not accurate for measuring volume.
48TimerTimers are often used to help you take readings at appropriate lengths of time.
49Test tubesGlass test tubes in a wooden rack with black rubber stoppers are useful for holding liquids in biology lab.
50Test tube brushes are used to clean and test tube holders help handle hot test tubes.
51Work cited Carolina Biological http://www.carolina.com 1/22/12 Cells Alive1/21/12New World EncyclopediaWikipedia;