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Sport Books Publisher1 Enhancing Health, Study, Work, and Play Through Physical Fitness Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Books Publisher1 Enhancing Health, Study, Work, and Play Through Physical Fitness Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Books Publisher1 Enhancing Health, Study, Work, and Play Through Physical Fitness Chapter 9

2 Sport Books Publisher2 Objectives To identify the various components of fitness To understand the contribution of physical fitness to overall health To examine your own physical fitness level and to develop an awareness of personal fitness requirements To develop a personal fitness and lifestyle program

3 Sport Books Publisher3 Introduction What is Fitness?

4 Sport Books Publisher4 Introduction: What is Fitness? Fitness… Is multidimensional; physical, emotional, social, and intellectual components Is the ability to adapt to the demands and stresses of physical efforts Represents one’s functional readiness and level of effectiveness

5 Sport Books Publisher5 Introduction: What is Fitness? Fitness includes… Cardiorespiratory endurance Flexibility Body composition Muscular strength Muscular power; and Muscular endurance

6 Sport Books Publisher6 Introduction A high level of fitness is important to competitive athletes General fitness is a prerequisite for the optimal development of sport-specific fitness

7 Sport Books Publisher7 Definition of Physical Fitness The ability of the body to adjust to the demands and stresses of physical effort Physical fitness is thought to be a measure of one’s physical health

8 Sport Books Publisher8 Definition of Physical Activity Any movement carried out by the skeletal muscles Requires the use of energy

9 Sport Books Publisher9 Definition of Exercise Physical activity that is planned, structured, and usually involves repetitive bodily movements Designed to improve or maintain physical fitness

10 Sport Books Publisher10 Physical Activity vs. Physical Fitness Physical activity and physical fitness are related measures Physical fitness is an achieved condition that limits the amount of physical activity that can be performed A physical activity-exercise continuum exists, so that what may be considered physical activity to a fit person may be considered exercise to an unfit person

11 Components of Physical Fitness

12 Sport Books Publisher12 Components of Physical Fitness Muscular Strength Power Muscular Endurance Cardiorespiratory Endurance Flexibility Psychomotor Ability Body Composition

13 Sport Books Publisher13 Muscular Strength

14 Sport Books Publisher14 The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance Commonly measured as a maximal value Force and strength are synonymous (greater muscle mass results in greater strength) Force = Mass x Acceleration Muscular Strength

15 Sport Books Publisher15 Power

16 Sport Books Publisher16 The ability to overcome external resistance at a high rate of muscular contraction The ability to exert force is dependent on muscular strength Therefore, power is a derivative of muscular strength Power

17 Sport Books Publisher17 Muscular Endurance

18 Sport Books Publisher18 The ability of a muscle or muscle group to sustain a given level of force (static exercise), or to repeatedly contract and relax (dynamic exercise) at a given resistance Muscular Endurance

19 Sport Books Publisher19 Muscular Endurance Static Exercise: Involves sustained contractions Often compromises blood flow, leading to an accumulation of metabolic by-products and fatigue Dynamic Exercise: Involves continuous rhythmical contractions and relaxations Allows oxygen to be continually delivered to muscle, and for waste by-products to be removed

20 Sport Books Publisher20 Static Exercise The flexed arm hang is an example of a static exercise

21 Sport Books Publisher21 Dynamic Exercise Sit-ups are an example of a dynamic exercise

22 Sport Books Publisher22 Agonist- Antagonist Training Training should include exercises that stimulate both the agonists (working muscles) and the antagonists (counter-acting muscles) Focusing only on on increasing agonist strength tends to shorten the agonist muscles and weaken the antagonist muscles This shift in strength equilibrium can result in impaired joint positions, and make articular cartilage and muscles prone to injury

23 Sport Books Publisher23 Agonist- Antagonist Training Examples: Using partner-assisted exercises Using free weights Using one’s own body weight

24 Sport Books Publisher24 Cardiorespiratory Endurance

25 Sport Books Publisher25 The ability to produce energy through an improved delivery of oxygen to working muscles Involves the cardiovascular and respiratory systems The major function of the cardiorespiratory system is to provide oxygen to tissues Needed for exertion over longer periods of time Cardiorespiratory Endurance

26 Sport Books Publisher26 Aerobic Power The maximal rate at which the body can take up, transport, and utilize oxygen Expressed as maximal oxygen uptake or max VO 2

27 Sport Books Publisher27 Max VO 2 Max VO 2 is measured as the maximal value of oxygen consumption recorded during a progressive exercise test to exhaustion

28 Sport Books Publisher28 Prediction of Max VO 2 Predictions based on the linear relationship between heart rate and workload can be made over a given workload range Heart Rate Workload Resting Heart Rate

29 Sport Books Publisher29 Prediction of Max VO 2 With increasing workload, heart rate increases to a maximum that corresponds to a maximal oxygen consumption (max VO 2 ) Heart Rate Workload Resting Heart Rate Maximum Heart Rate

30 Sport Books Publisher30 Absolute Max VO 2 VO 2 is expressed as a volume per unit time (litres/minute) VO 2 is positively correlated with muscle mass Absolute max VO 2 is useful for within group comparisons (group members with comparable mass) Its use is limited when comparing two groups that differ in mass or body composition

31 Sport Books Publisher31 Relative Max VO 2 Expressed in relation to mass (expressed in kilograms) Accounts for differences in mass Units used are ml/kg/min Relative VO 2 = Absolute VO 2 Mass (kg)

32 Sport Books Publisher32 Flexibility

33 Sport Books Publisher33 Flexibility The ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion Determined by joint structure, muscle length, and muscle elasticity

34 Sport Books Publisher34 Flexibility Flexibility is affected by: Age Sex Inactivity  The benefits of flexibility include: Good joint health Slowed joint deterioration Improved quality of life Flexibility may prevent back pain and injuries

35 Sport Books Publisher35 Flexibility Collagen is important for flexibility Collagen is the main structural protein in connective tissues Collagen provides structure and support to tissues, ligaments, tendons, and joints Elastin allows muscles to be stretched

36 Sport Books Publisher36 Active and Passive Flexibility A. Active Flexibility: The range of movement generated by individual effort B. Passive Flexibility: The range of movement achieved with the help of external forces (a partner, weight, rubber band) A. Active stretching B. Passive stretching

37 Sport Books Publisher37 Flexibility Passive flexibility exercises achieve a wider range of movement than active flexibility exercises

38 Sport Books Publisher38 Stretching Methods  There are three stretching methods: Static Stretching Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretching

39 Sport Books Publisher39 Static Stretching Method Holding a fully stretched position Slow relaxation of muscles to be stretched Held for seconds Repeated 4-6 times

40 Sport Books Publisher40 Dynamic Stretching Method Rapidly moving a joint through its full range of motion Involves stretching with repetitive bouncing movements, using small intervals Increasing amplitude range Maximal range achieved after movements Repeated 3-5 times

41 Sport Books Publisher41 PNF Method The most efficient stretching method Exploits the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (the stretch reflex) Involves a partner Three stages to the PNF method…

42 Sport Books Publisher42 PNF Method 1.Active Stretching Phase  Muscles are actively pulled to the limit of the movement range  Performed slowly and continuously  Prevents muscle spindles from releasing the stretch reflex (and prevents muscles from contracting)

43 Sport Books Publisher43 PNF Method 2.Pre-tension Phase  Trainee exerts a full static resistance against partner resistance  Held for 7seconds  Causes tendon spindles to release inhibitory relaxation of the muscles to be stretched

44 Sport Books Publisher44 PNF Method 3.Passive Stretching Phase  Partner pushes the body further into the stretching position, almost to pain  Final position is held, with muscles relaxed, for 6 seconds  Partner applies slow and constant pressure

45 Sport Books Publisher45 Body Composition

46 Sport Books Publisher46 Body Composition Refers to the amounts of fat, muscle, bone, and other organs Percentages of lean body mass and fat body mass are of primary interest Physical fitness is generally associated with a reduced body fat content and increased lean body mass

47 Sport Books Publisher47 Psychomotor Ability

48 Sport Books Publisher48 Psychomotor Ability Psychomotor ability serves to integrate the central nervous system with the more physical components of fitness Important to functioning and performance in everyday and fitness environments Related to an athlete’s ability to adapt and respond to changes in their surroundings

49 Sport Books Publisher49 Psychomotor Ability Psychomotor abilities include: Reaction time Anticipation Visual skills Hand-eye coordination Perception Attention Concentration Balance Proprioception Memory Decision-making

50 Sport Books Publisher50 Developing a Strength and Cardio- Respiratory Fitness Program

51 Sport Books Publisher51 Training Components to Consider Training time Frequency of exercising Intensity of exercising Volume of training Work-to-rest ratio Type of exercise Order of exercises Number of repetitions per set Number of sets Recovery periods between exercises

52 Sport Books Publisher52 Training Time

53 Sport Books Publisher53 Training Time Refers to the total time devoted to developing fitness Based on the duration of each training session and frequency of training per week, month, or year

54 Sport Books Publisher54 Training Frequency

55 Sport Books Publisher55 Training Frequency Depends on the goals of the individual Athletes may train 2-10 times per week for strength and cardiovascular endurance For general fitness training, 2-3 sessions per week may be sufficient to maintain levels of strength and endurance For weight loss or strength or endurance gains, however, 4-6 sessions per week are necessary

56 Sport Books Publisher56 Training Volume

57 Sport Books Publisher57 Training Volume Refers to the sum total of work performed during a training session or phase of training Measured in various units depending on the type of activity Cyclic movements (walking, running, swimming, etc.) are measured in metres or kilometres as a measure of distance Strength exercises using body weight are measured by the number of repetitions performed and the number of exercises done Strength exercises using weights are measured by the sum of all weight lifted per session, and the number of repetitions performed with a given load

58 Sport Books Publisher58 Training Intensity

59 Sport Books Publisher59 Training Intensity Probably the most important component of strength training Characterizes the degree of stimulation or intensity of exercise per unit of time Measured in various units depending on the type of activity Expressed as a percentage of a trainee’s personal best or 100% performance in the activity This becomes the benchmark, or starting point, for defining relative intensities to be used to plan workouts

60 Sport Books Publisher60 Training Intensity Distance Covered: metres per second (m/s) and kilometres per hour (km/h) for cyclic events Examples include running, cross-country skiing, cycling, rowing

61 Sport Books Publisher61 Training Intensity Resistance to Overcome: kilograms (kg) lifted per unit of time (kg/minute) Examples include weightlifting using barbells, dumbbells, machines

62 Sport Books Publisher62 Training Intensity Frequency of Movements: rate per unit of time for acyclic activities Examples include gymnastics, figure skating, diving, ski jumping, ball games

63 Sport Books Publisher63 Work-to-Rest Ratio

64 Sport Books Publisher64 Work-to-Rest Ratio Refers to the relationship between the phases of work and rest during training In general, the lower the intensity of exercise per unit of time, the shorter the rest periods required Conversely, the higher the intensity of exercise, the longer the rest periods must be Must be considered in connection with all components of training such as the volume of exercise and types of exercises performed

65 Sport Books Publisher65 Relationship Between Intensity and Volume

66 Sport Books Publisher66 Relationship Between Distance and Speed of Running

67 Sport Books Publisher67 Type of Exercise

68 Sport Books Publisher68 Type of Exercise Fitness development is dependant upon the type of physical exercises practiced Exercises differ in spatial and dynamic structure, complexity, and difficulty

69 Sport Books Publisher69 Type of Exercise In strength training, load dosage can be achieved using one’s own body weight, the weight of a partner, free- weights, machines, etc.

70 Sport Books Publisher70 Type of Exercise In cardiorespiratory fitness training, one can run on a track, in parks, in sand, stair-climb, or run uphill or downhill Each environment provides a different intensity of exercise

71 Sport Books Publisher71 Warm-Up and Cool-Down

72 Sport Books Publisher72 Warm-Up and Cool-Down Loosening-up and relaxation exercises performed before and after training are beneficial

73 Sport Books Publisher73 Benefits of a Warm-Up Raising the body temperature, increasing respiration, heart rate, blood flow, metabolic rate, oxygen exchange Increasing range of movement, decreasing muscle tension, preventing muscle, tendon, ligament strains Increasing central nervous system activity, improving coordination, reducing reaction time

74 Sport Books Publisher74 Benefits of a Cool-Down Helps speed recovery from a bout of exercise Helps physiological systems return to normal levels

75 Sport Books Publisher75 Other Components of Training

76 Sport Books Publisher76 Exercise Speed Lower exercise speeds promote an increase in muscle diameter Brisk exercise speeds develop power or muscular explosiveness

77 Sport Books Publisher77 Number of Repetitions The number of sets or repetitions depends on the training method, the individual’s performance level, and personal goals A lower number of repetitions per set promotes maximal strength A greater number of repetitions is suitable for endurance training

78 Sport Books Publisher78 Variety of Exercise The variety of exercises used depends on one’s goal(s) Recreational athletes will tend to perform a large number of exercises Competitive athletes with a specific goal will tend to perform fewer, more sport-specific, exercises

79 Sport Books Publisher79 Principles of Strength Training

80 Sport Books Publisher80 New and progressively higher training demands enable athletes to adapt their physical and mental functions to increase performance capacity To ensure that muscles are being adequately overloaded, resistance should be periodically increased Training volume and training intensity can be progressively increased

81 Sport Books Publisher81 1.Gradual Load Increase Involves increasing training load gradually Using small steps, training load is increased from one training cycle to another All training and individual exercises should be performed to fatigue Load increase depends on training frequency, volume, and intensity − in that order

82 Sport Books Publisher82 2.Explosive Load Increase Involves abrupt or explosive increases in training load Is effective in more sport-specific, goal- oriented training, especially for competition Requires a substantial increase in volume and/or intensity of training from one training cycle to another

83 Sport Books Publisher83 Interruptions in training have a negative effect on performance; results in a stagnation or decline in performance Cardiovascular and muscular endurance decline faster than maximal power or strength performance Loss in performance applies to coordination, technical skills, and tactical skills, leading to an overall decline in performance Athletes who have trained for many years are more resistant to the effects of training interruptions

84 Sport Books Publisher84 The principle of ‘specificity’ states that the responses to exercise are specific to the nature or type of exercise performed Specific exercises lead to specific physiological responses This principle applies to the following: Strength Muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance Coordination Speed of movement Motor patterns Joint angle of movement Neuromuscular components involved Speed of muscle contraction Type of muscle contraction

85 Sport Books Publisher85 The systematic division of the training year into periods that allow for optimal performance development during the competitive season Three major periods are involved: 1. The Preparatory Phase (PP) 2. The Competition Phase (CP) 3. Transition Periods (TP)  Individual periods are further subdivided: 1. Macro-cycles (2-6 weeks) 2. Microcycles (7 days) 3. Daily cycles (1-2 training sessions) 4. Training sessions (1-2 hours)

86 Sport Books Publisher86 Preparation Period (PP): Development of a high level of fitness from which to build Characterized by a gradual and progressive increase of exercise volume at medium intensity levels

87 Sport Books Publisher87 Competitive Period (CP): Maintenance of the level of fitness achieved in the PP Volume and intensity of fitness work are reduced The main emphasis is on sport-specific skill training

88 Sport Books Publisher88 Transition Period (TP): Relatively short in duration (2-4 weeks) Designed to offer a break from competition and intensive training Relaxation in addition to recreation is recommended Ensures that strength and endurance do not drop significantly

89 Sport Books Publisher89 Overview of fitness training methods and their effects

90 Sport Books Publisher90 Circuit Training

91 Sport Books Publisher91 Circuit Training An exercise training program that is designed to exercise all major muscle groups in one session An effective exercise method used in many sports, and for general fitness development purposes Allows for the combination and manipulation of specific exercises to achieve specific fitness goals Exercise intensity, volume, and rest intervals can be manipulated

92 Sport Books Publisher92

93 Sport Books Publisher93 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs Major variables to be considered: Number of exercises Sequence of exercises Length of rest period between sets Length of rest period between circuits Types of exercises Resistance levels

94 Sport Books Publisher94 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs The number of exercises per muscle group depends on: The training effect to be achieved The desired volume of work to be completed during a training session The desired intensity of effort The structure of the program

95 Sport Books Publisher95 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs The trainee progresses from one exercise station to another in sequence A given number of repetitions are performed at each exercise station Active recovery of previously used muscles occur from station to station

96 Sport Books Publisher96 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs The trainee moves quickly from one station to another, with little rest between exercise stations

97 Sport Books Publisher97 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs A circuit may include running laps between stations The effect of this type of training is the development of both muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness

98 Sport Books Publisher98 Principles of Circuit Exercise Programs Research has shown that circuit training is an effective training method for both competitive and recreational fitness development

99 Sport Books Publisher99 Cardiorespiratory Training 1. Endurance training 2. Fartlek training 3. Interval training 4. Repetition training

100 Sport Books Publisher100 Endurance Training Also known as continuous training or slow long distance (SLD) training Involves training at approximately 40-60% of max. performance ability over a long distance Typically carried out without break Physiological benefits include enhanced aerobic capacity and development of staying power Psychological benefits include increased determination and self-confidence The major objective of SLD training is to develop a solid fitness base during the preparatory season

101 Sport Books Publisher101

102 Sport Books Publisher102 Fartlek Training Endurance training method used by runners mainly during the preparatory season Using an extremely flexible training program Combines long slow distance training, pace/tempo training and interval training It involves easy running, fast bursts of running of varying lengths, hill running etc.

103 Sport Books Publisher103 Interval Training Involves systematic alteration of exertion and recovery a. Extensive Interval b. Intensive Interval

104 Sport Books Publisher104 A. Extensive Interval Requires the trainee to carry out a great number of repetitions of selected distance in one session with a recovery period equal to the work interval Keeping the work-to-rest ratio (W:R) at 1:1-2 between intervals and 1:2-4 between sets Each exercise is repeated times The repetitions are divided into several sets The training intensity is between percent of the trainee’s max. performance

105 Sport Books Publisher105

106 Sport Books Publisher106 B. Intensive Interval Overall lower training volume than the extensive interval method Each interval is repeated times Performed at percent of the trainee’s max performance capacity Requires longer breaks: W:R is approximately 1:2-3 between intervals and 1:4-6 between sets Should not be implemented until a solid fitness base of aerobic training has been attained

107 Sport Books Publisher107

108 Sport Books Publisher108 Repetition Training Also known as tempo training Conducted at maximal intensity levels Used in the final preparations for competition The duration of exercise is normally longer than in interval training Longer recovery periods are needed between individual bouts W:R is approximately 1:5 or longer

109 Sport Books Publisher109

110 Sport Books Publisher110 Combination Training Simultaneously develop both muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness A. Combo Circuit Training B. Cross Training

111 Sport Books Publisher111 Combo Circuit Training In addition to strength exercises, a circuit may include running laps between stations Distance of the running may vary between metres depending on the available facility and specific needs of the trainee

112 Sport Books Publisher112

113 Sport Books Publisher113 Cross Training Involves activities that offer aerobic fitness benefits similar to those offered by running. It can also promote total body fitness and may prevent overuse injuries Used by competitive athletes during the transition period A. Aerobic cross training (cycling, swimming) B. Muscular endurance cross training (rowing machine, StairMaster) C. Activity cross training (several different activities)

114 Sport Books Publisher114 Summary Physical fitness encompasses many components that are important for health- strength, power, endurance, flexibility, body composition, and psychomotor abilities Cardiorespiratory endurance can be enhanced through endurance, Fartlek, interval training, and repetition training Flexibility can be improved by static stretching, dynamic stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)


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