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IR1 IMEM RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Formulating Research Problem, BREDA SEP2011.

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Presentation on theme: "IR1 IMEM RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Formulating Research Problem, BREDA SEP2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 IR1 IMEM RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Formulating Research Problem, BREDA SEP2011

2 Recap review literature

3 INDICATORS FOR A GOOD SOURCE 1.Carries a title 2.Has the author/s clearly listed 3.Uses sources according to an international standard reference list & in-text referencing according to e.g., APA 4.Is published at credible publishing houses 5.Is referenced by other researchers too If 1-3 are not met, the source is of questionable quality => refrain from using it If 4-5 are met, the source is of good quality => use it!

4 SOURCES ( Links added to ResearchMethods.nl) Conference paper => less time to prepare, less time to review, more recent, limited scope Journal paper => more preparation, strict review process, established knowledge, easier to generalize Book chapter => even more established knowledge but no peer review

5 SEARCHING vs. FINDING Search easy but Find not easy Main problems: Sticking to the obvious Using tutor cited literature Inefficient search strategies Content is not possible to be accessed

6 DEVELOP THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Sort material under main themes & theories Highlight agreements & disagreements Identify unanswered questions or gaps Iterative process

7 DEVELOP CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Which part of theory are you going to research How?

8 The Research Problem

9 IMPORTANCE OF FORMULATING Research Problem ‘…like the foundation of a building.’ (Kumar, p.44) The way a RP is formulated can determine: Type of study design Sampling strategy Research instrument

10 SOURCES FOR Research Problem People Study population Problems Issues, needs Programmes Intervention Phenomena Cause and effect

11 CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING A R. P. Interest Magnitude Measurement of concepts Level of expertise Relevance Availability of data Ethical issues

12 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Course Research Methods Course Research Methods Step 1 Identify Step 2 Dissect Step 3 Select Step 4 Raise Question Step 7 Double check Step 6 Make Sure Step 5 Formulate Objectives

13 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Research Methods Research Methods Step 1 Identify 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low Step 2 Dissect Step 3 Select Step 4 Raise Question Step 7 Double check Step 6 Make sure Step 5 Formulate Objectives

14 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Research Methods Research Methods Step 1 Identify 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low Step 2 Dissect Pass rate low Step 3 Select Step 4 Raise Question Step 7 Double check Step 6 Make sure Step 5 Formulate Objectives

15 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Research Methods Research Methods Step 1 Identify 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low Step 2 Dissect Pass rate low Step 3 Select Step 7 Double check Step 6 Make sure Step 5 Formulate Objectives What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level Step 4 Raise Question

16 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Research Methods Research Methods Step 1 Identify 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low Step 2 Dissect Pass rate low Step 3 Select Step 7 Double check Step 6 Make sure To Improve the pass rate of the course 1.Find out why 2.Come with new more effective ways to teach/train 3.Measure the effects of the new chosen method To Improve the pass rate of the course 1.Find out why 2.Come with new more effective ways to teach/train 3.Measure the effects of the new chosen method Step 5 Formulate Objectives What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level Step 4 Raise Question

17 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Research Methods Research Methods Step 1 Identify 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low Step 2 Dissect Pass rate low Step 3 Select What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level Step 4 Raise Question Step 7 Double check 1.Amount of work 2.Time available 3.Financial resources 4.Technical expertise 1.Amount of work 2.Time available 3.Financial resources 4.Technical expertise Step 6 Make sure To Improve the pass rate of the course 1.Find out why 2.Come with new more effective ways to teach/train 3.Measure the effects of the new chosen method To Improve the pass rate of the course 1.Find out why 2.Come with new more effective ways to teach/train 3.Measure the effects of the new chosen method Step 5 Formulate Objectives

18 STEPS IN FORMULATING A R) Research Methods Research Methods Step 1 Identify 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low 1.Pass rate Low 2.Book difficult 3.Too little time 4.Abstract thinking too low Step 2 Dissect Pass rate low Step 3 Select What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level What causes a low pass rate How to improve the pass rate How to improve the knowledge level Step 4 Raise Question 1.Really interested 2.Agree with objectives 3.Adequate resources 4.Technical expertise 1.Really interested 2.Agree with objectives 3.Adequate resources 4.Technical expertise Step 7 Double check 1.Amount of work 2.Time available 3.Finacial resources 4.Technical expertise 1.Amount of work 2.Time available 3.Finacial resources 4.Technical expertise Step 6 Make sure To Improve the pass rate of the course 1.Find out why 2.Come with new more effective ways to teach/train 3.Measure the effects of the new chosen method To Improve the pass rate of the course 1.Find out why 2.Come with new more effective ways to teach/train 3.Measure the effects of the new chosen method Step 5 Formulate Objectives

19 Characteristics for Objectives Clear

20 Characteristics for Objectives Clear Complete

21 Characteristics for Objectives Clear Complete Specific

22 Characteristics for Objectives Clear Complete Specific Identify main variables to correlate

23 Characteristics for Objectives Clear Complete Specific Identify main variables to correlate Idetify the direction of relation

24 STUDY POPULATION Clearly identify the study population In the example we just discussed what would be the study population? Why is it important to define the study population?

25 Establish Operational Definitions In our example we have some concepts defined What is a low pass rate? What is Knowledge level? When is the pass rate improved? So Be as precise as possible when defining the research problem! Do not expect that everybody has the same reference

26 OPERATIONALIZING Quantitative research !

27 SUMMARY The 4 P’s ( People, Problems, programmes, phenomena) Considerations ( Interest, Magnitude, Measurement of concepts, Expertise, Relevance, Availability of data, Ethical Issues) Steps 9 Identify, Dissect, Select, Raise Questions, Formulate Objectives, Make sure, Double check) Define the study Population Establishing operational definitions (How do you define poverty, income, study succes etc.)


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