Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PIGEON DISSECTION.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PIGEON DISSECTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 PIGEON DISSECTION

2 WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY?
EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!

3

4 ARCHAEOPTERYX First bird
Fossil image from: Image from:

5 PIGEON ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone”
LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ORDER _____________________________ ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” AVES Plural of “avis”= bird COLUMBIFORMES

6 FEATHERS VANE RACHIS Image from:

7 MODIFICATIONS of INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
Feathers- (light weight & sturdy) provide lift & prevent heat loss Preen gland keeps feathers “fly-able” Streamline body to decrease air/wind resistance

8 BEAKS Image from:

9

10 EXTERNAL NARES CERE NICTITATING MEMBRANE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE inside head SCALY SKIN on feet CLAWS

11 EYES BIG for size of head See in COLOR
Kestral Image from: EYES BIG for size of head See in COLOR Eyes on front of face- gives depth perception Seen in predators Eyes on sides of head- Gives wide range of vision Seen in prey

12 BROOD PATCH Skin-to-egg contact keeps growing babies WARM
Males that sit on eggs have it, too Image by Riedell/VanderWal ©2005

13 CLOACA & VENT Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

14 Images by Riedell/VanderWal©2005
PREEN GLAND Oil makes feathers waterproof Preening straightens feathers and re-hooks barbules Image from:

15 SKELETAL Hollow bones = light weight
Image from: BIODIDAC

16 FUSED BONES = Sturdy FURCULA PYGOSTYLE STERNUM
Image modified from:

17 MODIFICATIONS of SKELETAL SYSTEM
Bones = hollow/air sacs extend into bones to make them LESS DENSE = fused to make them STURDY FURCULA – stabilizes shoulders during flight STERNUM- attaches flight muscles PYGOSTYLE- support for tail

18 MUSCULAR SYSTEM PECTORALIS & SUPRACORACOIDEUS
make up 35% of total body weight

19 MODIFICATIONS of MUSCULAR SYSTEM
HUGE PECTORALIS MUSCLE provides power to move wings

20 CROP No digestion happens here
Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005 No digestion happens here Stores and moistens food waiting to be digested Allows food to move faster/next batch is waiting

21 CROP MILK COLUMBIFORMES- crop makes nutritious fluid called CROP MILK for babies

22 REMOVE PECTORALIS MUSCLE
Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

23 LIVER GALL BLADDER inside
Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 WHAT CAN YOU SEE? HEART LIVER GALL BLADDER inside Rest of digestive system coiled underneath liver

24 HEART RIGHT ATRIUM LEFT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLE LEFT VENTRICLE
Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 RIGHT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLE LEFT ATRIUM LEFT VENTRICLE COMPLETE SEPTUM Heart = 1½ to 2 times larger than in equal size mammal Heart rate much faster to move more blood

25 HOW FAST ? A human heart beats ~ 60-90 times/min
A resting hummingbird’s heart beats 250 times/min. Or 1200 beats per minute (BPM) when feeding.

26 HEART COMPLETE SEPTUM NOW 4 chambers 2 atria/2 ventricles
Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005 COMPLETE SEPTUM NOW 4 chambers 2 atria/2 ventricles

27 SINUS VENOSUS & CONUS ARTERIOSUS ARE GONE
Main vein returning from body = VENA CAVA Main vein from lungs = PULMONARY VEIN Main artery to body = AORTA Main artery to lungs = PULMONARY ARTERY

28 2 chambers 3 chambers 4 chambers
1 loop loops 2 loops 2 chambers 3 chambers 4 chambers Fish amphibians birds & & reptiles mammals

29 4 CHAMBER HEART 2 LOOPS

30 FROG & TURTLE CIRCULATION
Sinus venosus Body organs RIGHTAtrium LEFT Atrium Lungs Conus arteriosus Ventricle FROG & TURTLE CIRCULATION

31 BIRD & MAMMAL CIRCULATION
Body organs Lungs RIGHTAtrium LEFT Atrium   Right Ventricle Left Ventricle BIRD & MAMMAL CIRCULATION 4 chambers/2 loops

32 BIRD CIRCULATION

33 MODIFICATIONS of CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Heart large for body size-pumps more blood Closed 2 loop system- most efficient/faster Complete septum/4 chamber heart- keeps Low/High oxygen blood totally separated Rapid heart rate- delivers more oxygen/faster

34 MODIFICATIONS of ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
THYROID GLAND CONTROLS RAPID METABOLISM BURNING GLUCOSE faster makes body heat! (ENDOTHERMIC) ENDOTHERMIC METABOLISM- provides maximum energy for extended activity (flying)

35 LIVER with GALL BLADDER inside
GIZZARD PANCREAS

36 LIVER with GALL BLADDER inside
GIZZARD PANCREAS

37

38 STOMACH PROVENTRICULUS entry to gizzard add acid GIZZARD Muscular
Contains gravel/rocks to grind food Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

39 DUODENUM (1st section of small intestine)
Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 Receives bile from GALL BLADDER Receives trypsin from PANCREAS PANCREAS makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, & GLUCAGON

40 SPLEEN (circulatory) In mesentery Wrapped in digestive loops Near
Gizzard Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

41 SMALL INTESTINE (Duodenum & Ileum)
REALLY, REALLY LONG SMALL INTESTINE Absorbs more nutrients Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

42 COLIC CAECA Pouches at junction of small & large intestine
Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 Pouches at junction of small & large intestine Contain bacteria to digest plants (cellulose)

43 LARGE INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE isn’t very large!
Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 LARGE INTESTINE isn’t very large! Absorbs less water back from feces (Water is HEAVY!) EXITS through CLOACA

44 … to eat like a bird means to eat very little BUT… Birds EAT A LOT
… to eat like a bird means to eat very little BUT… Birds EAT A LOT Most birds eat half their weight in food every day. That's like a 100-pound person eating 50 pounds of food in a day. And some young birds eat more than their weight in food every day!

45 MODIFICATIONS of DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Fast efficient digestive system fuels endothermic metabolism for more energy for extended activity CROP- stores next batch so food always moving through 2 part stomach (Crop/Gizzard) so food moves through faster COLIC CAECA- help break down plants LONG SMALL INTESTINE-absorbs lots of nutrients SHORT LARGE INTESTINE- Absorbs less water / feces not stored… out of body as it is made so weigh less

46 TRACHEA BRONCHI Cartilage rings keep airway open
Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

47 SYRINX VOICE BOX Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

48 LUNGS Remove 31% of oxygen ; Human lungs remove 24%
Images by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 Remove 31% of oxygen ; Human lungs remove 24%

49 AIR SACS STORE AIR No gas exchange ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the
INHALE and on the EXHALE

50 OXYGEN on the EXHALE Animation from:

51 MODIFICATIONS of RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
SUPER EFFICIENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM gets the most oxygen possible Extra AIR SACS allow oxygen in lungs on both the INHALE AND EXHALE Air sacs extending into bones makes skeleton less dense Alveoli increase surface area for more gas exchange

52 KIDNEYS & URETERS

53 MODIFICATIONS of EXCRETORY SYSTEM
Excrete nitrogen waste as URIC ACID- so uses less water to dilute No URINARY BLADDER- so urine (water) not stored… less weight

54 TESTES TESTES KIDNEYS URETERS CLOACA

55 ONLY 1 OVARY makes eggs OVIDUCTS add albumen/shell

56 INTERNAL FERTILIZATION
OVIPAROUS Lay amniotic eggs

57 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES
ALTRICIAL = HELPLESS hatch without feathers, eyes closed, can’t walk, parents must feed every 20 min Ex: songbirds, pigeons, raptors

58 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES
PRECOCIAL – MORE INDEPENDENT hatch with fuzzy down, can follow parent and feed itself soon after hatching EX: Ducks and geese Necessary for birds that lay eggs on ground

59 MODIFICATIONS of REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Female has only ONE OVARY & OVIDUCT on left side … less weight OVIPARITY- lay eggs OUTSIDE of body … less weight REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS- enlarge during breeding season/shrink rest of time… less weight

60 TUBES IS TUBES? OVIDUCTS- carry eggs from ovary to cloaca
VAS DEFERENS- carry sperm from testes to cloaca URETERS- carry urine from kidneys to cloaca

61

62 MODIFICATIONS of NERVOUS SYSTEM
Large brain for body size = “smarter” Bigger CEREBRUM for more complex behaviors problem solving; learning; navigation; Bigger CEREBELLUM- for muscle coordination Bigger OPTIC LOBES for better vision; 3D & Color Concentration of iron in brain to act as compass


Download ppt "PIGEON DISSECTION."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google