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PIGEON DISSECTION. WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY? EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!

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Presentation on theme: "PIGEON DISSECTION. WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY? EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!"— Presentation transcript:

1 PIGEON DISSECTION

2 WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY? EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!

3

4 Image from: ARCHAEOPTERYX First bird Fossil image from:

5 PIGEON LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ORDER _____________________________ ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” AVES Plural of “avis”= bird COLUMBIFORMES

6 FEATHERS Image from: VANE RACHIS

7 MODIFICATIONS of INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Feathers- (light weight & sturdy) provide lift & prevent heat loss Preen gland keeps feathers “fly-able” Streamline body to decrease air/wind resistance

8 BEAKS Image from:

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10 NICTITATING MEMBRANE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE inside head SCALY SKIN on feet CLAWS EXTERNAL NARES CERE

11 EYES BIG for size of head See in COLOR Eyes on front of face- gives depth perception Seen in predators Eyes on sides of head- Gives wide range of vision Seen in prey Kestral Image from:

12 BROOD PATCH Skin-to-egg contact keeps growing babies WARM Males that sit on eggs have it, too Image by Riedell/VanderWal ©2005

13 CLOACA & VENT Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

14 Image from: Oil makes feathers waterproof Preening straightens feathers and re-hooks barbules PREEN GLAND Images by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

15 SKELETAL Hollow bones = light weight Image from: BIODIDAC

16 Image modified from: FURCULA PYGOSTYLE STERNUM FUSED BONES = Sturdy

17 MODIFICATIONS of SKELETAL SYSTEM Bones = hollow/air sacs extend into bones to make them LESS DENSE = fused to make them STURDY FURCULA – stabilizes shoulders during flight STERNUM- attaches flight muscles PYGOSTYLE- support for tail

18 PECTORALIS & SUPRACORACOIDEUS make up 35% of total body weight MUSCULAR SYSTEM

19 MODIFICATIONS of MUSCULAR SYSTEM HUGE PECTORALIS MUSCLE provides power to move wings

20 CROP No digestion happens here Stores and moistens food waiting to be digested Allows food to move faster/next batch is waiting Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

21 CROP MILK COLUMBIFORMES- crop makes nutritious fluid called CROP MILK for babies

22 REMOVE PECTORALIS MUSCLE Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

23 WHAT CAN YOU SEE? HEART LIVER GALL BLADDER inside Rest of digestive system coiled underneath liver Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

24 HEART Heart = 1½ to 2 times larger than in equal size mammal Heart rate much faster to move more blood Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005 RIGHT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLE LEFT ATRIUM LEFT VENTRICLE COMPLETE SEPTUM

25 HOW FAST ? A human heart beats ~ times/min A resting hummingbird’s heart beats 250 times/min. Or 1200 beats per minute (BPM) when feeding.

26 HEART COMPLETE SEPTUM NOW 4 chambers 2 atria/2 ventricles Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

27 SINUS VENOSUS & CONUS ARTERIOSUS ARE GONE Main vein returning from body = VENA CAVA Main vein from lungs = PULMONARY VEIN Main artery to body = AORTA Main artery to lungs = PULMONARY ARTERY

28 1 loop 2 loops2 loops 2 chambers3 chambers4 chambers Fishamphibians birds & & reptiles mammals

29 4 CHAMBER HEART 2 LOOPS

30 Sinus venosus RIGHT Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG & TURTLE CIRCULATION

31 RIGHT Atrium Right Ventricle     Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          BIRD & MAMMAL CIRCULATION 4 chambers/2 loops Left Ventricle

32 BIRD CIRCULATION

33 MODIFICATIONS of CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Heart large for body size-pumps more blood Closed 2 loop system- most efficient/faster Complete septum/4 chamber heart- keeps Low/High oxygen blood totally separated Rapid heart rate- delivers more oxygen/faster

34 MODIFICATIONS of ENDOCRINE SYSTEM THYROID GLAND CONTROLS RAPID METABOLISM BURNING GLUCOSE faster makes body heat ! (ENDOTHERMIC) ENDOTHERMIC METABOLISM- provides maximum energy for extended activity (flying)

35 GIZZARD PANCREAS LIVER with GALL BLADDER inside

36 GIZZARD PANCREAS LIVER with GALL BLADDER inside

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38 STOMACH PROVENTRICULUS entry to gizzard add acid GIZZARD Muscular Contains gravel/rocks to grind food Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

39 DUODENUM (1 st section of small intestine) Receives bile from GALL BLADDER Receives trypsin from PANCREAS PANCREAS makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, & GLUCAGON Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

40 SPLEEN (circulatory) In mesentery Wrapped in digestive loops Near Gizzard Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

41 SMALL INTESTINE (Duodenum & Ileum) REALLY, REALLY LONG SMALL INTESTINE Absorbs more nutrients Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

42 COLIC CAECA Pouches at junction of small & large intestine Contain bacteria to digest plants (cellulose) Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

43 LARGE INTESTINE isn’t very large! Absorbs less water back from feces (Water is HEAVY!) EXITS through CLOACA Image by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

44 … to eat like a bird means to eat very little BUT… Birds EAT A LOT Most birds eat half their weight in food every day. That's like a 100-pound person eating 50 pounds of food in a day. And some young birds eat more than their weight in food every day !

45 MODIFICATIONS of DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Fast efficient digestive system fuels endothermic metabolism for more energy for extended activity CROP- stores next batch so food always moving through 2 part stomach (Crop/Gizzard)- so food moves through faster COLIC CAECA- help break down plants LONG SMALL INTESTINE-absorbs lots of nutrients SHORT LARGE INTESTINE- Absorbs less water / feces not stored… out of body as it is made so weigh less

46 TRACHEA BRONCHI Cartilage rings keep airway open Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

47 SYRINX VOICE BOX Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

48 LUNGS Remove 31% of oxygen ; Human lungs remove 24% Images by Riedell/VanderWal © 2005

49 AIR SACS STORE AIR No gas exchange ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the INHALE and on the EXHALE

50 OXYGEN on the EXHALE Animation from:

51 MODIFICATIONS of RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SUPER EFFICIENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM gets the most oxygen possible Extra AIR SACS allow oxygen in lungs on both the INHALE AND EXHALE Air sacs extending into bones makes skeleton less dense Alveoli increase surface area for more gas exchange

52 KIDNEYS & URETERS

53 MODIFICATIONS of EXCRETORY SYSTEM Excrete nitrogen waste as URIC ACID- so uses less water to dilute No URINARY BLADDER- so urine (water) not stored… less weight

54 TESTES KIDNEYS URETERS CLOACA

55 ONLY 1 OVARY makes eggs OVIDUCTS add albumen/shell

56 INTERNAL FERTILIZATION OVIPAROUS Lay amniotic eggs

57 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES ALTRICIAL = HELPLESS hatch without feathers, eyes closed, can’t walk, parents must feed every 20 min Ex: songbirds, pigeons, raptors

58 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES PRECOCIAL – MORE INDEPENDENT hatch with fuzzy down, can follow parent and feed itself soon after hatching EX: Ducks and geese Necessary for birds that lay eggs on ground

59 MODIFICATIONS of REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Female has only ONE OVARY & OVIDUCT on left side … less weight OVIPARITY- lay eggs OUTSIDE of body … less weight REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS- enlarge during breeding season/shrink rest of time… less weight

60 TUBES IS TUBES? OVIDUCTS- carry eggs from ovary to cloaca VAS DEFERENS- carry sperm from testes to cloaca URETERS- carry urine from kidneys to cloaca

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62 MODIFICATIONS of NERVOUS SYSTEM Large brain for body size = “smarter” Bigger CEREBRUM for more complex behaviors problem solving; learning; navigation; Bigger CEREBELLUM- for muscle coordination Bigger OPTIC LOBES for better vision; 3D & Color Concentration of iron in brain to act as compass


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