10 EXTERNAL NARESCERENICTITATING MEMBRANETYMPANIC MEMBRANEinside headSCALY SKIN on feet CLAWS
11 EYES BIG for size of head See in COLOR Kestral Image from:EYESBIG for size of head See in COLOREyes on front of face- gives depth perceptionSeen in predatorsEyes on sides of head-Gives wide range of visionSeen in prey
17 MODIFICATIONS of SKELETAL SYSTEM Bones = hollow/air sacs extend into bones to make them LESS DENSE = fused to make them STURDYFURCULA – stabilizes shoulders during flightSTERNUM- attaches flight musclesPYGOSTYLE- support for tail
18 MUSCULAR SYSTEM PECTORALIS & SUPRACORACOIDEUS make up 35% of total body weight
19 MODIFICATIONS of MUSCULAR SYSTEM HUGE PECTORALIS MUSCLEprovides power to move wings
33 MODIFICATIONS of CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Heart large for body size-pumps more bloodClosed 2 loop system- most efficient/fasterComplete septum/4 chamber heart- keeps Low/High oxygen blood totally separatedRapid heart rate- delivers more oxygen/faster
34 MODIFICATIONS of ENDOCRINE SYSTEM THYROID GLAND CONTROLS RAPID METABOLISMBURNING GLUCOSE faster makes body heat! (ENDOTHERMIC)ENDOTHERMIC METABOLISM-provides maximum energy for extended activity (flying)
44 … to eat like a bird means to eat very little BUT… Birds EAT A LOT … to eat like a birdmeans to eat very littleBUT… Birds EAT A LOTMost birds eat half their weight in food every day. That's like a 100-pound person eating 50 pounds of food in a day. And some young birds eat more than their weight in food every day!
45 MODIFICATIONS of DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Fast efficient digestive system fuels endothermic metabolism for more energy for extended activityCROP- stores next batch so food always moving through2 part stomach (Crop/Gizzard) so food moves through fasterCOLIC CAECA- help break down plantsLONG SMALL INTESTINE-absorbs lots of nutrientsSHORT LARGE INTESTINE- Absorbs less water / feces not stored… out of body as it is made so weigh less
51 MODIFICATIONS of RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SUPER EFFICIENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM gets the most oxygen possibleExtra AIR SACS allow oxygen in lungs on both the INHALE AND EXHALEAir sacs extending into bones makes skeleton less denseAlveoli increase surface area for more gasexchange
57 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES ALTRICIAL = HELPLESShatch without feathers, eyes closed, can’t walk, parents must feed every 20 minEx: songbirds,pigeons, raptors
58 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES PRECOCIAL – MORE INDEPENDENThatch with fuzzy down, can follow parent and feed itself soon after hatchingEX: Ducks and geeseNecessary for birds that lay eggs on ground
59 MODIFICATIONS of REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Female has only ONE OVARY & OVIDUCT on left side … less weightOVIPARITY- lay eggs OUTSIDE of body … less weightREPRODUCTIVE ORGANS- enlarge during breeding season/shrink rest of time… less weight
60 TUBES IS TUBES? OVIDUCTS- carry eggs from ovary to cloaca VAS DEFERENS- carry sperm from testes to cloacaURETERS- carry urine from kidneys to cloaca
62 MODIFICATIONS of NERVOUS SYSTEM Large brain for body size = “smarter”Bigger CEREBRUM for more complex behaviors problem solving; learning; navigation;Bigger CEREBELLUM- for muscle coordinationBigger OPTIC LOBES for better vision; 3D & ColorConcentration of iron in brain to act as compass
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