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PIGEON DISSECTION. WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY? EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!

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Presentation on theme: "PIGEON DISSECTION. WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY? EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!"— Presentation transcript:

1 PIGEON DISSECTION

2 WHAT BODY PARTS DOES A BIRD HAVE TO HELP IT FLY? EVERYTHING! EVERY body system in a bird is modified in some way to help it fly!

3

4 Image from: ARCHAEOPTERYX First bird Fossil image from:

5 PIGEON LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ORDER _____________________________ ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” AVES Plural of “avis”= bird COLUMBIFORMES

6 FEATHERS Image from: VANE RACHIS

7 MODIFICATIONS of INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Feathers- (light weight & sturdy) provide lift & protect against heat loss Preen gland keeps feathers “fly-able” Streamline body to decrease air/wind resistance

8 BEAKS Image from:

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10 NICTITATING MEMBRANE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE inside head SCALY SKIN on feet CLAWS EXTERNAL NARES CERE

11 EYES BIG for size of head See in COLOR Eyes on front of face- gives depth perception Seen in predators Eyes on sides of head- Gives wide range of vision Seen in prey Kestral Image from:

12 BROOD PATCH Skin-to-egg contact keeps growing babies WARM Males that sit on eggs have it, too Image from:

13 CLOACA & VENT Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

14 Image from: Oil makes feathers waterproof Preening straightens feathers and re-hooks barbules PREEN GLAND

15 SKELETAL Hollow bones = light weight Image from: BIODIDAC

16 Image modified from: FURCULA PYGOSTYLE STERNUM FUSED BONES = Sturdy

17 MODIFICATIONS of SKELETAL SYSTEM Bones = hollow/air sacs extend into bones to make them LESS DENSE = fused to make them STURDY FURCULA – stabilizes shoulders during flight STERNUM- attaches flight muscles PYGOSTYLE- support for tail

18 PECTORALIS & SUPRACORACOIDEUS make up 35% of total body weight MUSCULAR SYSTEM

19 MODIFICATIONS of MUSCULAR SYSTEM HUGE PECTORALIS MUSCLE provides power to move wings

20 CROP No digestion happens here Stores and moistens food waiting to be digested Allows food to move faster/next batch is waiting Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

21 CROP MILK COLUMBIFORMES- crop makes nutritious fluid called CROP MILK for babies

22 HEART Heart = 1 ½ to 2 times larger than in equal size mammal Heart rate much faster to move more blood

23 HEART COMPLETE SEPTUM NOW 4 chambers 2 atria/2 ventricles Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

24 1 loop 2 loops2 loops 2 chambers3 chambers4 chambers Fishamphibians birds & & reptiles mammals

25 4 CHAMBER HEART 2 LOOPS

26 Sinus venosus RIGHT Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG & TURTLE CIRCULATION

27 RIGHT Atrium Right Ventricle     Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          BIRD & MAMMAL CIRCULATION 4 chambers/2 loops Left Ventricle

28 BIRD CIRCULATION

29 MODIFICATIONS of CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Heart large for body size-pumps more blood Closed 2 loop system- most efficient/faster Complete septum/4 chamber heart- keeps Low/High oxygen blood totally separated Rapid heart rate- delivers more oxygen/faster

30 MODIFICATIONS of ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ENDOTHERMIC METABOLISM- provides maximum energy for extended activity (flying) BURNING more GLUCOSE faster… is where the heat comes from!

31 GIZZARD PANCREAS LIVER with GALL BLADDER inside

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33 GIZZARD Muscular Contains gravel/rocks to grind food

34 SMALL INTESTINE (Duodenum & Ileum) LARGE INTESTINE isn’t very large! Absorbs less water back from feces (Water is HEAVY!) EXITS through CLOACA

35 COLIC CAECA Pouches on intestine Contain bacteria to digest plants

36 MODIFICATIONS of DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Fast efficient digestive system fuels endothermic metabolism for more energy for extended activity CROP- stores next batch so food always moving through 2 part stomach (Crop/Gizzard)- so food moves through faster COLIC CAECA- help break down plants LONG SMALL INTESTINE-absorbs lots of nutrients SHORT LARGE INTESTINE- Absorbs less water / feces not stored… out of body as it is made so weigh less

37 TRACHEA BRONCHI Cartilage rings keep airway open Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

38 SYRINX VOICE BOX Image by Riedell/VanderWal©2005

39 LUNGS Remove 31% of oxygen ; Human lungs remove 24%

40 AIR SACS STORE AIR No gas exchange ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the INHALE and on the EXHALE

41 OXYGEN on the EXHALE This is an adaptation! Animation from:

42 MODIFICATIONS of RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SUPER EFFICIENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM gets the most oxygen possible Extra AIR SACS allow oxygen in lungs on both the INHALE AND EXHALE Air sacs extending into bones makes skeleton less dense Alveoli increase surface area for more gas exchange

43 KIDNEYS & URETERS

44 MODIFICATIONS of EXCRETORY SYSTEM Excrete nitrogen waste as URIC ACID- so uses less water to dilute No URINARY BLADDER- so urine (water) not stored… less weight

45 TESTES TESTES-males KIDNEYS URETERS CLOACA

46 OVARY make eggs OVIDUCTS add albumen/shell

47 INTERNAL FERTILIZATION OVIPAROUS Lay amniotic eggs

48 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES ALTRICIAL = HELPLESS hatch without feathers, eyes closed, can’t walk, parents must feed every 20 min Ex: songbirds, pigeons, raptors

49 DIRECT DEVELOPMENT 2 KINDS OF BABIES PRECOCIAL – MORE INDEPENDENT hatch with fuzzy down, can follow parent and feed itself soon after hatching EX: Ducks and geese

50 MODIFICATIONS of REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Female has only ONE OVARY & OVIDUCT on left side … less weight OVIPARITY- lay eggs OUTSIDE of body … less weight REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS- enlarge during breeding season/shrink rest of time… less weight

51 TUBES IS TUBES? OVIDUCTS- carry eggs from ovary to cloaca VAS DEFERENS- carry sperm from testes to cloaca URETERS- carry urine from kidneys to cloaca

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53 MODIFICATIONS of NERVOUS SYSTEM Large brain for body size = “smarter” Bigger CEREBRUM for more complex behaviors problem solving; learning; navigation; Bigger CEREBELLUM- for muscle coordination Bigger OPTIC LOBES for better vision; 3D & Color Concentration of iron in brain to act as compass Thus the ability to migrate!!! You are now ready to dissect!


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