Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Drg. Fidya, M.Si Departemen of Anatomy Histology."— Presentation transcript:
1Skeletal SystemDrg. Fidya, M.Si Departemen of Anatomy Histology
2Part of Skeletal System SkeletonCartilagesLigamentsJointConsist of :Birth skeletal 270Adult skeletal 207/206Why different?
3Function of Skeletal Support Storage of minerals Blood cell production ProtectionBody movement
4FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON Supports the body.The bones of the lower limbs support the entire body when we are standing, and the pelvic girdle supports the the abdominal cavityProtects soft body partThe bones of the skull protect the brain; The rib cage protects the heart and lungs.Produces blood cellsAll bones in the fetus have red bone marrow that produces blood cells. In the adult, only certain bones produce blood cells.
5Stores minerals and fat All bones have a matrix that contains calcium phosphate, a source of calcium ions and phosphate ions in the blood. Fat is stored in yellow bone marrowAlong with the muscles, permits flexible body movementWhile articulations ( joints ) occur between all the bones, we associate body movement in particular with the bones of the limbs
6Skeletal System Divide into 2 division: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton
7Skeletal System Axial Skeleton Appendicular skeleton Skull Hyoid Bone Auditory ossicleVertebral ColumnRib cagePectoral gridleUpper extremitasPelvic gridleLower extremitas
13Hyoid Bones The hyoid bone above the larynx below the mandible Supports the tongueAssists in swallowing
14Auditory ossicleThree auditory ossicles (“ear bones”) : present in the middle-ear chamber of each earServe to transmit sound impulses.Three small paired bones (auditory ossicles)located: within the middle-ear cavities in the petrous part of the temporal bonesMalleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup) (outer-inner)
15Vertebral ColumnComposed of 33 individual vertebrae, some of which are fused.Consist of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 4 to 5 fused sacral, and 3 or 5 fused coccygealAdult vertebral column composed of a total of 26 movable parts.Vertebrae are separated by fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs.Secured to each other by interlocking processes and binding ligaments.Between the vertebrae are openings called intervertebral foramina that allow passage of spinal nerves.
17Rib CageThe cone-shaped, flexible rib cage, consists of the thoracic vertebrae,12 paired ribs, costal cartilages, and the sternum.Encloses and protects the thoracic visceraDirectly involved in the mechanics of breathing.
19Pectoral Gridle Two scapulae and two clavicles having only an anterior attachment to the axial skeleton sternoclavicular joint at the sternum.Lacking a posterior attachment to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle has a wide range of movement.Function:- To provide attachment areas for the numerous muscles that move the shoulder and elbow joints.
23Pelvic GridleFormed by two ossa coxae. together with sacrum and coccyx pelvisUnited anteriorly at the symphysis pubisAttached posteriorly to the sacrum of the vertebral column.Function:- support the weight of the body from the vertebral column (with assosiated ligament)- supports and protects the lower viscera, (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, developing fetus)
262.3 JOINT ( ARTICULATION ) There are two systems for classification : According amount of movement they allowAccording to their structure ( the convention followed here )A joint called :SYNARTHROSIS ( IMMOVABLE )AMPHIARTHROSIS ( SLIGHT MOVEMENT )DIARTHROSIS ( FREELY MOVABLE )
27SYNARTHROSIS ( IMMOVABLE ) Occur where fibrous connective tissue joints bone to bone fibrous jointSutures, in the cranial vault and face; and are immovable
28AMPHIARTHROSIS ( SLIGHT MOVEMENT ) Where bones are joined by hyalin cartilage or fibrocartilage cartilaginous jointsSlightly movableThe pubic symphysis, the joint between the two pubic bones
29DIARTHROSIS ( FREELY MOVABLE ) Bone ends do not contact each other, but are enclosed in a capsuleGenerally freely movableTwo bones are separated by a joint cavity is lined by a synovial membrane, which produces synovial fluid, a lubricant for the jointLigament, which are composed of dense regular connective tissue, bind the two bones and add even more stability
31MOVEMENT PERMITTED BY SYNOVIAL JOINTS Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons that cross joint. When a muscle contracts, one bone moves in elation to another boneTypes of movement :ANGULAR MOVEMENTCIRCULAR MOVEMENTSPECIAL MOVEMENT
32ANGULAR MOVEMENT FLEXION EXTENTION ADDUCTION ABDUCTION Decreases the joint angleEXTENTIONIncreases the joint angleADDUCTIONthe movement of body part toward the midlineABDUCTIONThe movement of the body part laterally, away from midline
33CIRCULAR MOVEMENT CIRCUMDUCTION ROTATION SUPINATION PRONATION The movement of the body part in a wide, makes arm circleROTATIONThe movement of a body part around its own axis:The arm is twisted toward the trunk ( MEDIAL ROTATIONThe arm away from the trunk ( LATERAL ROTATION )SUPINATIONThe rotation of the forearm the palm in upwardPRONATIONIs the opposite, the movement of the forearm the palm is downward
34SPECIAL MOVEMENT INVERSION EVERSION ELEVATION and DEPRESSION Turning the foot so that the sole faces inwardEVERSIONTurning the foot so that the sole faces outwardELEVATION andDEPRESSIONRefer to the lifting up and down, respectively, of a body partShrug shoulderMove jaw up and down