Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Drg. Fidya, M.Si Departemen of Anatomy Histology."— Presentation transcript:
Skeletal System Drg. Fidya, M.Si Departemen of Anatomy Histology
Part of Skeletal System Skeleton Cartilages Ligaments Joint Consist of : Birth skeletal 270 Adult skeletal 207/206 Why different?
Function of Skeletal Support Storage of minerals Blood cell production Protection Body movement
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON Supports the body. –The bones of the lower limbs support the entire body when we are standing, and the pelvic girdle supports the the abdominal cavity Protects soft body part –The bones of the skull protect the brain; The rib cage protects the heart and lungs. Produces blood cells –All bones in the fetus have red bone marrow that produces blood cells. In the adult, only certain bones produce blood cells.
Stores minerals and fat –All bones have a matrix that contains calcium phosphate, a source of calcium ions and phosphate ions in the blood. Fat is stored in yellow bone marrow Along with the muscles, permits flexible body movement –While articulations ( joints ) occur between all the bones, we associate body movement in particular with the bones of the limbs
Skeletal System Divide into 2 division: Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton
Hyoid Bones The hyoid bone above the larynx below the mandible Supports the tongue Assists in swallowing
Auditory ossicle Three auditory ossicles (“ear bones”) : present in the middle-ear chamber of each ear Serve to transmit sound impulses. Three small paired bones (auditory ossicles) located: within the middle-ear cavities in the petrous part of the temporal bones Malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup) (outer-inner)
Vertebral Column Composed of 33 individual vertebrae, some of which are fused. Consist of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 4 to 5 fused sacral, and 3 or 5 fused coccygeal Adult vertebral column composed of a total of 26 movable parts. Vertebrae are separated by fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs. Secured to each other by interlocking processes and binding ligaments. Between the vertebrae are openings called intervertebral foramina that allow passage of spinal nerves.
Rib Cage The cone-shaped, flexible rib cage, consists of the thoracic vertebrae, 12 paired ribs, costal cartilages, and the sternum. Encloses and protects the thoracic viscera Directly involved in the mechanics of breathing.
Pectoral Gridle Two scapulae and two clavicles having only an anterior attachment to the axial skeleton sternoclavicular joint at the sternum. Lacking a posterior attachment to the axial skeleton, the pectoral girdle has a wide range of movement. Function: - To provide attachment areas for the numerous muscles that move the shoulder and elbow joints.
Pelvic Gridle Formed by two ossa coxae. together with sacrum and coccyx pelvis United anteriorly at the symphysis pubis Attached posteriorly to the sacrum of the vertebral column. Function: - support the weight of the body from the vertebral column (with assosiated ligament) - supports and protects the lower viscera, (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, developing fetus)
2.3 JOINT ( ARTICULATION ) There are two systems for classification : –According amount of movement they allow –According to their structure ( the convention followed here ) A joint called : –SYNARTHROSIS ( IMMOVABLE ) –AMPHIARTHROSIS ( SLIGHT MOVEMENT ) –DIARTHROSIS ( FREELY MOVABLE )
SYNARTHROSIS ( IMMOVABLE ) Occur where fibrous connective tissue joints bone to bone fibrous joint Sutures, in the cranial vault and face; and are immovable
AMPHIARTHROSIS ( SLIGHT MOVEMENT ) Where bones are joined by hyalin cartilage or fibrocartilage cartilaginous joints Slightly movable The pubic symphysis, the joint between the two pubic bones
DIARTHROSIS ( FREELY MOVABLE ) Bone ends do not contact each other, but are enclosed in a capsule Generally freely movable Two bones are separated by a joint cavity is lined by a synovial membrane, which produces synovial fluid, a lubricant for the joint Ligament, which are composed of dense regular connective tissue, bind the two bones and add even more stability
MOVEMENT PERMITTED BY SYNOVIAL JOINTS Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons that cross joint. When a muscle contracts, one bone moves in elation to another bone Types of movement : ANGULAR MOVEMENT CIRCULAR MOVEMENT SPECIAL MOVEMENT
ANGULAR MOVEMENT FLEXION –Decreases the joint angle EXTENTION –Increases the joint angle ADDUCTION –the movement of body part toward the midline ABDUCTION –The movement of the body part laterally, away from midline
CIRCULAR MOVEMENT CIRCUMDUCTION –The movement of the body part in a wide, makes arm circle ROTATION –The movement of a body part around its own axis: The arm is twisted toward the trunk ( MEDIAL ROTATION The arm away from the trunk ( LATERAL ROTATION ) SUPINATION –The rotation of the forearm the palm in upward PRONATION –Is the opposite, the movement of the forearm the palm is downward
SPECIAL MOVEMENT INVERSION –Turning the foot so that the sole faces inward EVERSION –Turning the foot so that the sole faces outward ELEVATION and DEPRESSION –Refer to the lifting up and down, respectively, of a body part Shrug shoulder Move jaw up and down