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» Surface Relations ˃Stomach ˃Renal ˃Colon » Suspended by ˃Phrenosplenic ligament ˃Gastrosplenic ligament ˃Splenocolic ligament ˃Gastrocolic ligament.

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Presentation on theme: "» Surface Relations ˃Stomach ˃Renal ˃Colon » Suspended by ˃Phrenosplenic ligament ˃Gastrosplenic ligament ˃Splenocolic ligament ˃Gastrocolic ligament."— Presentation transcript:


2 » Surface Relations ˃Stomach ˃Renal ˃Colon » Suspended by ˃Phrenosplenic ligament ˃Gastrosplenic ligament ˃Splenocolic ligament ˃Gastrocolic ligament » Blood Supply ˃Splenic artery, L gastroepiploic, short gastrics ˃Splenic Vein

3 » Two general components: ˃White pulp (5-20%) ˃Red pulp (~85%) ˃ Enclosed by capsule and interspersed with trabeculae

4 » Filtration ˃Stiff or fragile RBCs cannot pass through interendothelial slits » Immune function ˃Splenic phagocytes, together with macrophages in the liver,synthesize the majority of components of the classical pathway of complement ˃Slow blood flow in the red pulp cords allows foreign particles to be phagocytosed without specific ligand- receptor interactions ˃Important in fighting early bacterial infection



7 » Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ˃Most common hematologic indication for splenectomy ˃Spleen is the source of circulating antiplatelet IgG ˃Also responsible for sequestration of sensitized platelets ˃Dx made by thrombocytopenia with normal bone marrow ˃Patients present with ecchymosis and purpura and at times there is excessive bleeding from the gums, vaginal bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hematuria ˃Platelet count characteristically less than 50,000/mm3

8 » Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ˃First line of treatment medical +Steroids +IgG +Plasmapheresis » Medical treatment only curative in 15% of adults » Cure rates up to 87% reported with splenectomy » Given risks of splenectomy, should be reserved for patients with platelet counts <25,000/mm3 and bleeding

9 » Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura ˃Increase of subendothelial collagen in the arterioles and capillaries causing diffuse platelet trapping ˃Manifested by thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, fever, neurologic manifestations, and renal disease ˃Primarily treated with high volume plasmapheresis (80 to 90% survival) ˃Steroids and ASA ˃Splenectomy reserved for non-responders

10 » Hodgkin’s Disease ˃Historically, staging laparotomy with splenectomy were essential guides to treatment ˃Improvement in imaging and chemotherapy have minimized the role of the surgeon » Splenectomy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas ˃Symptomatic splenomegaly ˃NHL confined to the spleen or with prominent splenic involvement (survival improvement from 24 to 108 months) » Leukemias ˃Splenectomy indicated for symtpomatic splenomegaly

11 » Hereditary Spherocytosis ˃Autosomal dominant trait ˃Most common hemolytic anemia for which splenectomy is advised ˃Defective erythrocyte membrane causes trapping and disintegration within the spleen ˃Presents with anemia, reticulocytosis, jaundice, and splenomegaly ˃Diagnosis made by peripheral blood smear ˃Splenectomy is the only therapeutic modality (wait until age 4 to 6) ˃Outcomes are excellent

12 » Thalasemia ˃Autosomal dominant transmission ˃Defect in the synthesis rate of hemoglobin ˃Thalassemia major (homozygous) presents with pallor, retarded body growth, enlarged head, and intractable ulcers ˃Diagnosis made by nucleated RBCs (target cells) in smear ˃Splenectomy reserved for patients with markedly symptomatic splenomegaly, painful splenic infarction, and increased transfusion requirement ˃Greater risk of post-splenectomy sepsis

13 » Sickle Cell Disease ˃Spleen commonly enlarged during the first decade of life but then undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated attacks of vaso- occlusion and infarction ˃In general, splenectomy should be avoided in patients with SCD (immunocompromized)

14 » Sickle Cell Disease ˃Main indications are: +Acute splenic sequestration crisis – Circulatory collapse and sudden death from the rapid sequestration of red blood cells – Second-leading cause of pediatric deaths in patients with SCD +Hypersplenism – Splenectomy decreases transfusion requirements – Partial splenectomy may be an option2 +Splenic abscess – Increased incidence of Salmonella

15 » The embryologic origin is in the ventral mesogastrium » The suspensory ligaments with the exception of the gastrosplenic ligament are avascular » The spleen is fixed in the LUQ and cannot be safely mobilized » Accessory spleens are most commonly located along the greater omentum

16 » H. Influenzae » Strep Pneumoniae » N. Meningetidis

17 » White pulp serves a phagocytic function » Red pulp serves an immunologic function » Microcirculation is predominantly a closed system with direct AV channels » Cellular elements of the blood pass directly from red pulp cords to sinuses

18 » The spleen can only remove cells coated with IgA » Levels of properdin and tuftsin fall after splenectomy » Lack of howell-jolly bodies after splenectomy suggests the presence of accessory spleens » Encapsulated bacteria are effectively removed in asplenic individuals » Is a site of hematopoiesis throughout life

19 » Splenectomy is indicated for patients who fail to improve with initial therapy with steroids » Splenectomy is more often necessary in children with ITP than it is for adults » Splenectomy is not indicated in the absence of splenomegaly » Preoperative platelet transfusions are recommended for patients with platelets under 50K » The sole reason for splenectomy in ITP is to remove the source for platelet phagocytization

20 » Circulating antiplatelet antibodies » Venous thrombosis » Arteriolar and capillary occlusion » Intravascular activation of the coagulation cascade

21 » Lymphangiography and CT used together have eliminated the need for staging laparotomy » The operative technique of a staging laparotomy is different for women than men » Partial splenectomy is adequate for staging and has helped lower OPSS » Staging laparotomy results is a change in the stage of Hodgkin’s disease in 40% of cases

22 » CLL » CML » Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma » Hairy cell leukemia » Myeloid metaplasia

23 » It is the most common complication of splenectomy for hematologic disease » The onset is typically characterized by sudden high fevers » It is more common in adults than in children » It is more commonly fatal in children than adults » It is more common after splenectomy for hematologic disease than for trauma

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