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REHABILITATION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION H SELCUK KUCUKOGLU ULUDAG UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF PM&R AND SPORTS MEDICINE.

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Presentation on theme: "REHABILITATION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION H SELCUK KUCUKOGLU ULUDAG UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF PM&R AND SPORTS MEDICINE."— Presentation transcript:

1 REHABILITATION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION H SELCUK KUCUKOGLU ULUDAG UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF PM&R AND SPORTS MEDICINE

2 EPİDEMİOLOGY Yearly incidence of ACL injuries has been reported to be 3/10,000 inhabitants in Denmark (Nielsen, 1991), In Sweden, ACL injuries comprise 43% of all soccer related injuries (Roos,1995),…

3 Type of graft Age (Year) Weight (kg) Operation time after the injury (months) Sex Level of Sportive Activity Injury level Injured extremity MFSpSedAkSubKr RightLeft PT 25.6    SG 26.3   

4 GOAL The goal of ACL reconstruction is to improve the patients level of function, with in the hope of allowing them to return to an active life style, with minimal disability, while protecting them from further injury to the knee.

5 why treat After an ACL lesion, knee instability is common and may produce progressive functional changes and damage to other joint structures (meniscal damage,articular cartilage damage,and degenerative arthritis) which may also affect daily life activities.

6 why TREAT The ACL has poor potential for spontaneous healing after complete rupture,and therefore conservative treatment aims to develop joint motion patterns that help control abnormal knee motions which can arise in the absence of functional ACL.

7 why TREAT In the years following an ACL injury additional meniscus ruptures frequently occur. 80% of ACL deficient patients were found to have a torn meniscus within 2 years of ACL injury. »Gillquist-Messner (Sports Med. March 1999)

8 why REHABILITATION Optimal healing of an ACL graft and the knee is dependent on rehabilitation, The strains applied to an ACL graft by body weight, muscle activity, and joint motion affect its healing response,

9 ACCELERATED REHABILITATION Investigations of ACL grafts that have been done in animals indicate that they lose their ultimate failure strength and undergo a decrease of stiffness and the knees have an increase in anterior laxity develop during healing.

10 Accelerated rehabilitation The exact cause of above mentioned changes and the application of this data to humans are unclear.Rougraff-Shelbourne reported that large proportion of the tendon survives and ACL graft healing in humans may not undergo the same complete necrotic stage that has been reported in animals. »Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 1999

11 ACLRehabilitation Preoperative Phase: –Goals Diminish inflammation,swelling, and pain Restore normal range of motion (extension) Restore voluntary muscle activation Provide patient education to prepare for surgery Brace-elastic wrap or knee sleeve to reduce swelling Weight bearing-as tolerated with or without crutches

12 ACL Rehabilitation2 Preoperative phase –Exercises Ankle pumps Passive knee extension to zero Passive knee flexion to tolerance Straight leg raises (3-way, flexion, abduction, adduction Quadriceps setting Closed kinetic chain exercises: mini squats, lunges, step-ups

13 ACL Rehabiltation3 Preoperative Phase –Muscle stimulation-electrical muscle stimulation to quadriceps during voluntary quadriceps exercises (4-6 hours/day) –Cryotherapy/elevation-apply ice 20 minutes of every hour, elevate leg with knee in full extension –Patient education- review postoperative rehabilitation program

14 BIOMECHANICS Isometric exercises that strain the ACL involve contraction of the dominant quadriceps muscle group with the knee between extension and 60° flexion, or involve isotonic contraction of the quadriceps between extension and 50° flexion,

15 Biomechanics2 The largest ACL strain magnitudes that have been measured and produced by isometric and isotonic contraction of the quadriceps muscles with the knee near extension.

16 Biomechanics3 Squatting, stationary bicycling,and closed kinetic chain exercises that involves body weight loading and substantial cocontraction of the muscles does not create an appreciable change in ACL strain values.

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18 WEEKS MOTION CPM Intermittant passive motion EXERCISES Patellar mobilization Straight leg raises (4-way) Isometrics Stationary bike (if ROM>110º) Running Closed chain Isokinetic Quadriseps (0º-40º not permitted) Isokinetic Quadriseps (0º-20º not permitted) Isokinetic Hamstring PROPRIOCEPTIVE TRAINING Balance activities (eyes open-closedı, bilaterally) Balance activities (eyes open-closedı,unilaterally) Functional skill activites (low to high speed) WEIGHT BEARING/BRACE Rigid-hinged brace Full weight bearing MODALITIES Electrical muscle stimulation Cold (4-6 times/day) Cold (after exercises)

19 ACL Rehabilitation Immediate postoperative Phase (1-7 days) –Goals Restore full passive knee extension Diminish joint swelling and pain Restore patellar mobility Gradually improve knee flexion Reestablish quadriceps control Restore independent ambulation

20 ACL Rehabilitation Early Rehabilitation Phase (2-4 weeks) –Criteria to progress to phase 2 Quad control (ability to perform good quad set and straight leg raises Full passive knee extension Passive ROM 0° -90° Good patellar mobility Minimal joint inflammation Independent ambulation

21 ACL Rehabilitation Early Rehabilitation Phase –Goals Maintain full passive knee extension Gradually increase knee flexion Diminish swelling and pain Muscle training Restore proprioception Patellar mobility

22 ACL Rehabilitation Controlled ambulation Phase (weeks 4-10) –Criteria to enter phase 3 Active ROM 0° to 115° Quadriceps strength 60%>contralateral side (isometric test at 60° knee flexion) Minimal to no joint inflammation No joint line or patellofemoral pain

23 ACL Rehabilitation Controlled Ambulation Phase(2) –Goals Restore full knee ROM (0° -125°) Improve lower extremity strength Enhance proprioception,balance and neuromuscular control Improve muscular endurance Restore limb confidence and function No brace or immobilizer, may use knee sleeve

24 ACL Rehabilitation Advanced Activity Phase (10-16 weeks) –Criteria to enter Phase 4 Active ROM 0°-125° Quad strength 80% of contralateral side Knee flexor:extensor ratio 70%-75% No pain or effusion *Satisfactory clinical exam *Satisfactory isokinetic test (values at 60°/sec, 180°/sec and 300°/sec) *Hop Test (80% of contralateral leg) (4test) *Subjective knee scoring 80 points or better (Noyes)

25 ACL Rehabilitation Advanced activity phase (2) –Goals Normalize lower extremity strength Enhance muscular power and endurance Improve neuromuscular control Perform selected sport-specific drills

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27 ACL Rehabilitation Return to activity phase –Criteria to enter phase 5 Full ROM Isokinetic test that fulfills criteria Quad bil comparison (80% or greater) Hams Bil comparison (110% or greater) Proprioceptive test (100% of contralateral leg) Hamstring/quadriceps ratio (70% or greater) Functional test(85%or greater of contralateral side) Satisfactory clinical exam Subjective knee scoring (Noyes) 90 points or better

28 ACL Rehabilitation Return to activity phase (2) –Goals Gradual return to full unrestricted sports Achieve maximal strength and endurance Normalize neuromuscular control Progress skill training

29 Complications Hemarthrosis; Operative trauma and repeated operations Pretension of the substitute ligament Septic arthritis Postoperative arthrofibrosis Patellafemoral pain –All may lead to gonarthrosis in the long run

30 ROLE of PMR Check for the goals and the criterias to upgrade the patient Evaluate the results of isometric and isokinetic tests Evaluate the results of four HOP tests Examine the patient when appropriate for the stability Examine the patient for the complications and progress

31 PROPRIOCEPTION AND BALANCE AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION Ufuk Şekir, Bedrettin Akova, Hakan Gür Medical School of Uludag University, Department of Sports Medicine, BURSA

32 THE AIM OF THE STUDY To observe the changes in the proprioception and balance after ACL reconstruction.

33 PATIENTS AND METHODS 31 patients, mean age 24±7 (17-44) Patellar tendon autograft Time period between injury and the operation: 12 months ( 1-96) Follow-up : At 1 th, 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 6 th, and 12 th months after operation Accelerated rehabilitation program, includes proprioceptive exercises (which began in the first month): –Single-leg stance on hard surface (eyes open- closed) –Single-leg stance on soft surface (eyes open- closed ) –Balance board exercises (eyes open-closed )

34 Joint Position Sense (JPS) Eyes closed Index angles: 20 0,45 0 and 70 0 Angular velocity: 1 0 /s Before matching an index angle, the examiner extends the knee passively to the index angle for 3 s. Three repetitions for each index angle was made. The mean of absolute error score (AES) for each index angle was calculated Mean AES= Sum of means of index angles /3 JPS active JPS passive Cybex 6000

35 Single-limb Balance On a soft surface. Eyes open-closed. First on the uninjured and then on the injured side. Arms crossed, contralateral leg flexed. The subjects were required to stand 60s. Two repetition were made. Mean number of touchdowns and mean time to first touchdown were recorded.

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37 STATISTICS To compare injured-uninjured leg results; – Wilcoxon test

38 The results at the follow-up of the Single-limb Balance Test (Mean number of touchdowns) ** p<0,01, *p<0,05

39 The results at the follow-up of the Single-limb Balance Test (Mean time to first touchdown) ** p<0,01, *p<0,05

40 Joint Position Sense at 20 0 of Flexion *p<0,05

41 Joint Position Sense at 45 0 of Flexion ** p<0,01, *p<0,05

42 Joint Position Sense at 70 0 of Flexion

43 Joint Position Sense (Mean)

44 CONCLUSION The results of this study indicates that the proprioceptive capabilities of the ACL reconstructed knee can improved to the same level of the uninjured knee at 2 months after operation, with a rehabilitation program including proprioceptive exercises in early phase.

45 FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION: RELATIONSHIPS WITH KNEE EXTENSOR AND FLEXOR MUSCLE STRENGTH 1 Bedrettin Akova, 1 Hakan Gür, 1 Ufuk Şekir, 2 Sefa Müezzinoğlu 1 Medical School of Uludag University,Department of Sports Medicine, BURSA 2 Medical School of Kocaeli University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, KOCAELİ

46 THE AIM OF THIS STUDY; T o determine 1) the functional capacity and 2) the relationships between the functional capacity and knee extensor, and flexor peak torque after ACL reconstruction.

47 PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January, 2000 and June, male patients, mean age 24±7 (17- 44) Patellar tendon autograft Time period between injury and the surgery: 7 months ( 1-48) The follow-up was performed at 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 6 th, and 12 th months after operation

48 FUNCTIONAL TESTS Total distance 6 meters Total distance Single Hop For Distance Triple Hop For Distance Cross-over Hop For Distance Timed Hop

49 ISOKINETIC TEST Cybex 6000 Concentric test for knee flexors and extensors at the angular velocity of 60 0 and /seconds Peak torques (Pt) Both legs

50 STATISTICS To compare injured-uninjured leg results; – Wilcoxon test Relationships between functional capacity and isokinetic test results; – Pearson correlation coefficient test

51 The results of the Single Hop test *** p<0.001,** p<0.01 compared with uninjured leg at same month ++ p<0.01 compared with uninjured leg at 2 nd month

52 The results of the Timed Hop test *** p<0.001,** p<0.01, *p<0.05 compared with uninjured leg at same month ++ p<0.01 compared with uninjured leg at 2 nd month

53 The results of the Triple Hop test *** p<0.001,** p<0.01 compared with uninjured leg at same month +++ p<0.001, ++ p<0.01 compared with uninjured leg at 2 nd month

54 The results of Cross-over Hop test *** p<0.001,** p<0.01 compared with uninjured leg at same month +++ p<0.001, + p<0.05 compared with uninjured leg at 2 nd month

55 Results

56 RESULTS

57 CONCLUSION It is concluded that, the functional capacity can improve with a rehabilitation program used in this study up to four months after ACL surgery, and this improvement is significantly correlated by knee strength.

58 TIME 2 nd week1 st month2 nd month3 rd month4 th month6 th month 12 th month TOTAL SCORE 2,8  1,23,6  1,15,4  1,66,8  1,37,7  1,48,7  1,18,9  1,1 DAILY ACTIVITY 14,1  9,122,7  7,532,0  6,636,0  3,738,3  2,538,9  2,638,6  2,6 SPORTS ACTIVITY 40,4  2,041,5  4,052,5  10,863,3  11,271,7  12,383,3  10,488,6  9,1 Outcome Measures – Patellar Tendon

59 TIME 2 nd week1 st month2 nd month3 rd month4 th month6 th month 12 th month TOTAL SCORE 3,2  1,23,9  1,05,1  1,26,0  1,37,2  1,37,5  0,88,7  0,9 DAILY ACTIVITY 14,7  11,222,8  6,833,2  4,635,8  3,737,8  3,538,7  2,938,7  1,8 SPORTS ACTIVITY 41,4  5,641,7  5,749,2  10,055,1  9,164,5  13,974,9  9,985,3  15,2 Outcome Measures – SG

60 IKDC - Final Score (Patellar Tendon) % POINT ABCD TIME 2 nd week st month nd month rd month th month th month th month

61 IKDC - Final Score (SG) % POINT ABCD TIME 2 nd week st month nd month rd month th month th month th month2080--

62 THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION


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