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Shoulder Instability Department of Orthopaedics, CKUH Sen-Jen Lee Reference: Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Shoulder Instability Department of Orthopaedics, CKUH Sen-Jen Lee Reference: Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shoulder Instability Department of Orthopaedics, CKUH Sen-Jen Lee Reference: Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6

2 Natural History  The most common sequela of traumatic anterior shoulder instability is recurrence  90% for those 11 to 20 years of age  Averaging between 55% and 66%  87% recurrent instability after nonsurgical treatment  In the skeletally immature individual  Bankart lesion (labral detachment of the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex, IGHLC)  Length of immobilization, avoidance of overhead activity, and supervised physical therapy had no effect on outcome  Patients over 40 years of age  Neurologic injury and rotator cuff tears

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4 Biomechanics Static Stabilizers  Articular curvature between the glenoid and humeral head  Superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL) and coracohumeral ligament (CHL)  To resist inferior translation  Middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL)  To limit anterior translation  IGHLC  Primary restraint to anterior and posterior translation  Secondary restraint to inferior translation

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7 Biomechanics Dynamic Stabilizers  Rotator cuff muscles  Center the humeral head on the glenoid  Maintain joint stability  The capsuloligamentous structures (proprioception) provide afferent feedback for reflexive muscular control of the rotator cuff and biceps

8 Patient Evaluation  History  Physical examination  Specific provocative tests u Apprehension/relocation test and sulcus sign test  Imaging  Scapula (AP and lateral [y-view])  Axillary view  West point axillary view  CT arthrogram or MRI  Examination under anesthesia and arthroscopy

9 Apprehension test Relocation test Sulcus sign Load shift test

10 West Point view (axillary) True anteroposterior view

11 Computed tomography scan of glenohumeral joint with significant anterior bone loss and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion. Magnetic resonance image with arthrogram of large Bankart lesion.

12 Arthroscopic Findings of Patients With Instability  Bankart lesions: 87%  Capsular insufficiency :79%  Hill-Sachs lesions: 68%  (posterosuperior humeral head impression fracture )  Glenohumeral ligament insufficiency: 55%

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14 Clasification of Anterior Instability  Direction  Anterior  Posterior  Inferior  Multidirectional  Cause  Traumatic u Acute u Repetitive  Nontraumatic  Degree  Subluxation  Dislocation  Frequency  Acute  Recurrent  Patient control  Voluntary  Involuntary

15 Matsen’s Classification of Anterior Instability  TUBS  Traumatic  Unidirectional  Bankar lesion  Surgery  AMBRI  Atraumatic  Multidirectional  Bilateral  Rehabilitation  Inferior capsular shift

16 Redislocation Rates After Initial Dislocation (< 35 Y/O) Investigators Patients (%) No. of patients Age (years) Rowe9453 < 20 Mclaughlin95181 Simonet6632 Henry88121 < 32 Hovelius64102 < 22 Wheeler9238 Marans10021

17 Causes of Anterior Shoulder Instability  Bankart lesion  Avulsion of the anteroinferior capsulolabral complex  Hill-Sachs lesion  Compression fracture of the posterosuperior humeral head  SLAP lesion  Superior labrum anterior posterior  HAGL lesion  Humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligaments  ALPSA lesion  Ant. labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion  Laxity of the joint capsule

18 Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  Nonsurgical treatment:  Closed reduction  Immobilization (3 to 6 weeks) rehabilitation  Rate of recurrence : (less than 20 years old) u 60% to 90%

19 Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  Arthroscopic Bankart repair versus nonoperative treatment for acute, initial anterior shoulder dislocations.  14 % versus 80% recurrent instability Arciero RA, wheeler JH, Ryan JB, et al: am J sports med 1994;22:589-594.

20 Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  Inferior capsular shift procedure for anterior-inferior shoulder instability in athletes.  Satisfactory results: 94%  Returned to sports: 92% (75% at the same level).  The rate of recurrence: 3%. Bigliani LU, Kurzweil PR, Schwartzbach CC, et al: am JSports med 1994;22:578-584. Bigliani LU, Kurzweil PR, Schwartzbach CC, et al: am JSports med 1994;22:578-584.

21 Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  Arthroscopic Bankart suture repair.  Recurrent instability: 44%  The authors recommend: caution in the use of arthroscopic stabilization for the competitive athlete. Grana WA, Buckley PD, Yates CK: am J sports med 1993;21:348-353.

22 Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  Arthroscopic versus open Bankart procedures: A comparison of early morbidity and complications. Green MR, Christensen KP: arthroscopy1993;9:371-374. Green MR, Christensen KP: arthroscopy1993;9:371-374.  Reduction in  Surgical time  Blood loss  Postoperative narcotic use  Postoperative fevers  Duration of hospitalization  Work days missed

23 Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability  Treatment of instability of the shoulder with an exercise program.  Response to treatment: u Atraumatic versus traumatic instability: 80% versus 15% Burkhead WZ Jr, Rockwood CA Jr: J bone joint Surg 1992;74a:890-896.

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25 Selective capsular tightening. A, The inferior capsule is tightened with the arm in 10° flexion, 60° abduction, and 45° to 60° external rotation. B, The superior capsule is tightened with the arm in 0° abduction and 45° external rotation.

26 Treatment of Posterior Instability  Nonsurgical treatment with exercise program. (First choice)  Surgical treatment  Provide bony stability: u Posterior bone block, opening wedge osteotomy of the posterior glenoid (glenoplasty), and rotational osteotomy of the humerus  Soft-tissue repairs: u Posterior labral repair, a posterior capsular plication, and posterior capsulorrhaphy.

27 Instability in Throwing Athletes  Anterior instability  During the late cocking phase  Posterior capsular tightness, pain, or impingement signs  Posterior instability  During the follow-through phase.  "Dead arm" syndrome  Transient neurological symptoms

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29 Acromioclavicular Instability  Mechanism  Impact directly at the lateral edge of the acromion  Classification (Rockwood)  Type I: a sprain of the AC joint  Type II: partial rupture of the AC ligaments and the coracoclavicular ligaments with subluxation of the AC joint  Type III: dislocation of the AC joint with complete disruption of the coracoclavicular and AC ligaments  Type IV: dislocation of the AC joint with posterior displacement of the clavicle into or through the trapezius muscle  Type V: dislocation of the AC joint with marked superior displacement of the clavicle greater than twice the normal coracoclavicular distance  Type VI: inferior dislocation of the AC joint with subcoracoid displacement of the clavicle

30 Rockwood classification of ligamentous injuries to the acromioclavicular joint.

31 Treatment A-C Instability  Types I and II: nonsurgical  Sling for 2 weeks  Good results in over 90% of cases  Type III: controversial  Surgical treatment for acute injuries in laborers or high demand overhead athletes, and for chronic injuries in which initial nonsurgical treatment fails  Types IV, V, and VI : surgical management  AC fixation with pins or plates and coracoclavicular fixation with nonabsorbable suture or metallic screws

32 Chronic symptomatic A-C instability: The modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. (C-C fixation + transfer of the C- A ligament to the distal clavicle)

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