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Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc.Slide 1 Chapter 9 Articulations.

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Presentation on theme: "Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc.Slide 1 Chapter 9 Articulations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mosby items and derived items © 2007, 2003 by Mosby, Inc.Slide 1 Chapter 9 Articulations

2 How flexible are we?

3 Articulation = joints

4 Classification of Joints Structural - named according to presence of fluid filled joint capsule or type of connective tissue Structural - named according to presence of fluid filled joint capsule or type of connective tissue Functional - named according to degree of movement allowed Functional - named according to degree of movement allowed  Synarthroses—immovable joint  Amphiarthroses—slightly movable  Diarthroses—freely movable (synovial joints)

5 Fibrous joints - synarthroses - bones fit together closely Syndesmoses - joints in which ligaments connect 2 bones Syndesmoses - joints in which ligaments connect 2 bones Sutures - found in skull Sutures - found in skull Gomphoses - between root of tooth and mandible or maxilla Gomphoses - between root of tooth and mandible or maxilla

6 Cartilagenous joints Bones are joined together by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage Bones are joined together by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage  hyaline present between articulating bones.  Symphyses - joints in which pad or disk of fibrocartilage connects two bones.

7 Synovial joints (diarthroses)(freely movable) freely movable joints freely movable joints Joint capsule- binds together Joint capsule- binds together Synovial membrane - lines capsule Synovial membrane - lines capsule Articular cartilage - covers bones Articular cartilage - covers bones Joint cavity - space between bones Joint cavity - space between bones –Menisci (articular disks) –Ligaments - hold bones together –Bursae - filled with fluid

8 Cadaver joint

9 Types of synovial joints Uniaxial joints Uniaxial joints  Hinge joints - allows flexion and extension –Finger, elbow  Pivot joint - projection articulates with notch of other bone - ex. First/second cervical vertebrae Biaxial joints Biaxial joints  Saddle joints - only in thumb  Condyloid (ellipsoidal) joints - between radius/carpals Multiaxial joints Multiaxial joints  Ball and socket - shoulder and hip  Gliding joint - between vertebrae, carpals and tarsals

10 Shoulder joint - Humeroscapular joint  Most mobile  Ligaments - hold together bones  Tendons - attach muscle to bone  Bursae - contain fluid - shock absorption

11 Shoulder joint

12 Ball broken off humerus

13 Rotator cuff tears

14 Shoulder Replacement surgery

15 Elbow joint - Classic hinge joint  Two bones coming together with one bone  Stabilization by collateral ligaments  Surrounded by joint capsule  Olecranon bursa - protection  Trauma to nerve - “funny bone”/dropped wrist  Proximal radioulnar joint - permits forearm rotation

16 Wrist joints - Radiocarpal  Radius articulates with carpal bones  Joint - synovial

17 Intercarpal joints  Between 8 carpal bones  Stabilization by ligaments  Movements - gliding, with some abduction and flexion

18 Carpometacarpal joints three joints three joints  1 Thumb joint  Fingers - two joints—movements - gliding type  Thumb joint is unique and important functionally joint capsule is loose fitting joint capsule is loose fitting Saddle-shaped - allowing for opposition Saddle-shaped - allowing for opposition Movements— Movements—  extension,  adduction,  abduction,  circumduction,  opposition - opposable thumb

19 Metacarpophalangeal joints  Rounded heads of metacarpals articulate with concave bases of proximal phalanges  Strengthened by collateral ligaments  movements - flexion and extension

20 Interphalangeal joints  hinge-type, synovial  between heads of phalanges / distal phalanges

21 Hip joint Hip Joint Hip Joint  Stable joint (because of head of femur and acetabulum  A joint capsule / ligaments contribute to stability

22 Hip surgery

23 Knee joint  Largest / most complex  most frequently injured joints  Tibiofemoral joint - supported by ligaments, cartilage, joint capsule  Permits flexion and extension

24 ACL

25 Knee Replacement surgery

26 Knee resurfacing surgery

27 Ankle joint  Hinge type  synovial joint  Articulation - tibia and fibula articulate with talus  wedge-shaped Lateral malleolus lower than medial Lateral malleolus lower than medial

28 Ankle injuries  “sprained ankle” Involves anterior talofibular ligament Involves anterior talofibular ligament  External ankle rotation injuries generally involve bone fractures rather than ligament tears First-degree ankle injury—lateral malleolus fractured First-degree ankle injury—lateral malleolus fractured Second-degree ankle injury—both malleoli fractured Second-degree ankle injury—both malleoli fractured Third-degree ankle injury—fracture of both malleoli and articular surface of tibia Third-degree ankle injury—fracture of both malleoli and articular surface of tibia

29 Vertebral joints  Vertebral column  Intervertebral disks - between vertebrae  Ligaments - supporting vertebrae

30 Types and Range of Movement at Synovial Joints Measuring range of motion (ROM) Measuring range of motion (ROM)  Assessment of ROM  active or passive measurement  goniometer

31 Joint movement (Extension, flexion and rotation)

32 Joint movement - hyperextension, abduction, adduction

33 Joint movement - flexion, extension supination and pronation

34 Joint movement - dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, inversion, adduction and abduction of ankle

35 Joint movement - protraction, retraction, elevation and depression

36 Cycle of Life: Articulations Bone development and the sequence of ossification between birth and skeletal maturity affect joints Bone development and the sequence of ossification between birth and skeletal maturity affect joints  Fontanels between cranial bones disappear  Epiphysial plates ossify at maturity Older adults Older adults  ROM decreases  Changes in gait occur Skeletal diseases manifest as joint problems Skeletal diseases manifest as joint problems  Abnormal bone growth (lipping)—influences joint motion  Disease conditions can be associated with specific developmental periods

37 Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

38 Caring for your joints Maintain ideal body weight Maintain ideal body weight Move your body Move your body Stand up straight Stand up straight Use big joints when lifting Use big joints when lifting Pace yourself Pace yourself Listen to your body Listen to your body Don’t be static Don’t be static Sit on the floor when you can Sit on the floor when you can Prepare yourself for activities Prepare yourself for activities Wear safety equipment Wear safety equipment Ask for help Ask for help


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