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Chapter 9 Articulations

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Articulations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Articulations

2 How flexible are we?

3 Articulation = joints

4 Classification of Joints
Structural - named according to presence of fluid filled joint capsule or type of connective tissue Functional - named according to degree of movement allowed Synarthroses—immovable joint Amphiarthroses—slightly movable Diarthroses—freely movable (synovial joints)

5 Fibrous joints - synarthroses - bones fit together closely
Syndesmoses - joints in which ligaments connect 2 bones Sutures - found in skull Gomphoses - between root of tooth and mandible or maxilla

6 Cartilagenous joints Bones are joined together by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage hyaline present between articulating bones. Symphyses - joints in which pad or disk of fibrocartilage connects two bones.

7 Synovial joints (diarthroses)(freely movable)
freely movable joints Joint capsule- binds together Synovial membrane - lines capsule Articular cartilage - covers bones Joint cavity - space between bones Menisci (articular disks) Ligaments - hold bones together Bursae - filled with fluid

8 Cadaver joint

9 Types of synovial joints
Uniaxial joints Hinge joints - allows flexion and extension Finger, elbow Pivot joint - projection articulates with notch of other bone - ex. First/second cervical vertebrae Biaxial joints Saddle joints - only in thumb Condyloid (ellipsoidal) joints - between radius/carpals Multiaxial joints Ball and socket - shoulder and hip Gliding joint - between vertebrae, carpals and tarsals

10 Shoulder joint - Humeroscapular joint
Most mobile Ligaments - hold together bones Tendons - attach muscle to bone Bursae - contain fluid - shock absorption

11 Shoulder joint

12 Ball broken off humerus

13 Rotator cuff tears

14 Shoulder Replacement surgery

15 Elbow joint - Classic hinge joint
Two bones coming together with one bone Stabilization by collateral ligaments Surrounded by joint capsule Olecranon bursa - protection Trauma to nerve - “funny bone”/dropped wrist Proximal radioulnar joint - permits forearm rotation

16 Wrist joints - Radiocarpal
Radius articulates with carpal bones Joint - synovial

17 Intercarpal joints Between 8 carpal bones Stabilization by ligaments
Movements - gliding, with some abduction and flexion

18 Carpometacarpal joints
three joints 1 Thumb joint Fingers - two joints—movements - gliding type Thumb joint is unique and important functionally joint capsule is loose fitting Saddle-shaped - allowing for opposition Movements— extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, opposition - opposable thumb

19 Metacarpophalangeal joints
Rounded heads of metacarpals articulate with concave bases of proximal phalanges Strengthened by collateral ligaments movements - flexion and extension

20 Interphalangeal joints
hinge-type, synovial between heads of phalanges / distal phalanges

21 Hip joint Hip Joint Stable joint (because of head of femur and acetabulum A joint capsule / ligaments contribute to stability

22 Hip surgery

23 Knee joint Largest / most complex most frequently injured joints
Tibiofemoral joint - supported by ligaments, cartilage, joint capsule Permits flexion and extension

24 ACL

25 Knee Replacement surgery

26 Knee resurfacing surgery

27 Ankle joint Hinge type synovial joint
Articulation - tibia and fibula articulate with talus wedge-shaped Lateral malleolus lower than medial

28 Ankle injuries “sprained ankle”
Involves anterior talofibular ligament External ankle rotation injuries generally involve bone fractures rather than ligament tears First-degree ankle injury—lateral malleolus fractured Second-degree ankle injury—both malleoli fractured Third-degree ankle injury—fracture of both malleoli and articular surface of tibia

29 Vertebral joints Vertebral column
Intervertebral disks - between vertebrae Ligaments - supporting vertebrae

30 Types and Range of Movement at Synovial Joints
Measuring range of motion (ROM) Assessment of ROM active or passive measurement goniometer

31 Joint movement (Extension, flexion and rotation)

32 Joint movement - hyperextension, abduction, adduction

33 Joint movement - flexion, extension supination and pronation

34 Joint movement - dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, inversion, adduction and abduction of ankle

35 Joint movement - protraction, retraction, elevation and depression

36 Cycle of Life: Articulations
Bone development and the sequence of ossification between birth and skeletal maturity affect joints Fontanels between cranial bones disappear Epiphysial plates ossify at maturity Older adults ROM decreases Changes in gait occur Skeletal diseases manifest as joint problems Abnormal bone growth (lipping)—influences joint motion Disease conditions can be associated with specific developmental periods

37 Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

38 Caring for your joints Maintain ideal body weight Move your body
Stand up straight Use big joints when lifting Pace yourself Listen to your body Don’t be static Sit on the floor when you can Prepare yourself for activities Wear safety equipment Ask for help

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