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Clinical Anatomy of the knee

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Presentation on theme: "Clinical Anatomy of the knee"— Presentation transcript:

1 Clinical Anatomy of the knee
Mr CM Gupte Mr Alvin Chen

2 Overview Knee joint function Surface anatomy Bones Ligaments Tendons
Examination Disease processes

3 The Knee Joint Poorly constructed in terms of stability - femur round, tibia flat. Comprised of four bones. Femur Tibia Fibula Patella

4 The knee joint Load bearing / Force transmission Locomotion

5 Surface Anatomy

6 Bones Patella: femur = patellofemoral joint
Femur: tibia = medial and lateral tibiofemoral joints

7 Knee Arthroscopy Surface Landmarks

8 Patella Medial facet Lateral facet Articular cartilage

9 Femur Medial femoral condyle Lateral femoral condyle (protrudes more)
Trochlea Articular cartilage

10 Femoral ligament insertions
PCL inner aspect medial femoral condyle ACL inner aspect lateral femoral condyle

11 Tibia Medial and lateral plateau
Insertions of menisci and cruciate ligaments MCL/ semimembranosus

12 Tibial plateau Insertions of menisci/ Cruciate ligaments

13 Ligaments Extracapsular: MCL/ LCL Intracapsular: ACL/PCL Functions:
Stabilise Proprioception

14 ACL Two bundles Prevents anterior drawer and pivot

15 ACL Injury

16 MRI Normal ACL in RED Torn ACL

17 Tests for ACL Lachman’s Anterior Draw

18 Arthroscopy Intact ACL Torn ACL

19 ACL Reconstruction

20 PCL Stronger than ACL Prevents posterior drawer

21 PCL injury Direct Blow onto Tibia on a flexed knee

22 MRI PCL Normal PCL PCL torn

23 Posterior Sag from PCL rupture

24 MCL Medial Prevents valgus stress Deep and superficial parts
Heals well

25 MCL Injury

26 LCL Lateral Prevents varus stress
Cord like –weakest of the ligaments but rarely torn in isolation

27 Multiple Injuries

28 Extensor mechanism Quadriceps Patella Patellar tendon

29 Quadriceps VMO Rectus femoris Vastus intermedius Vastus lateralis
Extend knee

30 VMO Medial most quad Helps prevent lateral dislocation of the patella

31 Extensor Mechanism injuries I

32 Extensor Tendon Injuries II

33 Extensor Tendon Injuries III

34 Hamstrings Biceps laterally Semitendinosus/semimembranosus medially
Flex knee

35 Pes Sartorius Gracilis Semitendinosus
G and T used for ACL reconstruction

36 The principal muscles acting on the knee:
Movements of the Knee The principal muscles acting on the knee: Extensors - quadriceps femoris Flexors - hamstrings assisted by gracilis, gastrocnemius and sartorius. Medial rotators- popliteus.

37 Movements of the Knee The principal knee movements are flexion and extension, but rotation of the knee is possible when the joint is in flexed position .

38 Examination Look Feel Move
Think about structures and what you’re dong to them

39 Diseases OA Meniscal tears Ligament injuries Patellofemoral tracking
Tendon injuries Inflammatory arthritis Infection/tumours

40 Arthritic Knee X-ray

41 Knee Arthritis

42 Knee OA on arthroscopy

43 Total Knee Replacement

44 Patellofemoral Knee Replacement

45 Unicondylar Knee Replacement

46 Meniscal Tears

47 Treatment of Meniscal Tears
Suture/ Repair Debridement

48 Other Pathologies Patella Maltracking Bone Tumour

49 Any Questions ?

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