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Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT  Tissues and Structures Involved  Muscle  Nerve  Bone  Cartilage  What are Tendons?

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Presentation on theme: "Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT  Tissues and Structures Involved  Muscle  Nerve  Bone  Cartilage  What are Tendons?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT  Tissues and Structures Involved  Muscle  Nerve  Bone  Cartilage  What are Tendons?  Role of Joints  Mechanics of Joints  Making it all work

2 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Nerve and Muscle--the Motor Unit  Motor neurons review  Ventral horn spinal cord  Ventral root to spinal nerve to dorsal or ventral ramus  Nerve is bundle mixed neurons  One motor neuron synapes with several muscle cells  Motor Unit is one motor neuron plus the muscle cells it synapses  “Action potential”-- controlled conduction of electrical messages in neurons and muscle by depolarization of cell membrane Fig. 14.6, M&M

3 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Neuro-Muscular Junction Action potential in nerves triggers chemical release at synapse which triggers action potential in muscle Fig. 14.5, M&M

4 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement See also photo in Fig from M&M to see capillaries around muscle cells

5 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Bone and Cartilage  Bone as tissue  Bones as structures formed from bone, cartilage and other tissues  Location of cartilage in skeleton and relation to joints Fig. 6.1, M&M

6 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement HOW MOVEMENT HAPPENS: Muscles Pull on Tendons to Move Bones at Connections called Joints or Articulations

7 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Tendon  Generally regular connective tissue  Musculo-skeletal connections  Muscle to bone  Muscle to muscle  Bone to bone Fig. 4.15f, M&M

8 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Tendons  Tendons are structures that connect bone to muscle and are made up of tendon tissue  Can have various shapes  Typical is cord-like tendon of biceps  Sheeths are common-- ”aponeuroses” e.g. acromiotrapezius origin from thoracic vertebral spines Fig. 10.3, M&M

9 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Ligaments connect bone-to- bone or reinforce joints--they are made up of tendinous tissue as well E.g. knee ligaments Ligaments Fig. 9.12, M&M

10 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Joints or Articulations  Connections between bones  Usually, but not always allow for movement  Formed from various connective tissues  Fibrous  Cartilaginous  Synovial (most complex--typical limb joints)

11 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Fibrous joints  Suture  Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber  Only found in skull  Syndemoses  Bones connected by ligaments  E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna  Gomphoses  Peg in socket joint  Only found in teeth/alveoli Fig. 9.1 a, M&M

12 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Fibrous joints  Suture  Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber  Only found in skull  Syndemoses  Bones connected by ligaments  E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna  Gomphoses  Peg in socket joint  Only found in teeth/alveoli Fig. 8.4, M&M Fig. 9.1 b, M&M

13 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Fibrous joints  Suture  Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber  Only found in skull  Syndemoses  Bones connected by ligaments  E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna  Gomphoses  Peg in socket joint  Only found in teeth/alveoli Fig. 9.1 c, M&M

14 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Cartilaginous Joints  Synchondrosis  Hyaline cartilage unites bones  Epiphyseal growth plates  Costal cartilage-sternum  Symphyses  Fibrocartilage unites bones  Pubic symphysis  Intervertebral disc Fig. 9.2, M&M

15 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Synovial Joints  Most common joints in body  Most mobile joints  Have  Articular surfaces on bone with hyaline cartilage  Completely enclosed joint capsule formed from ligamentous connective tissue  Synovial fluid within capsule lubricates joint  Some have meniscus or articular disc(e.g. knee, jaw joint)

16 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Also see Fig. 9.3, M&M

17 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement

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19 Synovial Joint Shape Types  Plane joints--intercarpal joints  Hinge joints--elbow,ankle, interj-phalangeal  Pivot joints--radio-ulnar joint  Condyloid joints (egg into oval)--metacarpo- phalangeal  Saddle joints--carpo-metacarpal joint of thumb  Ball-and-socket--hip, shoulder The type of joint, in part, determines the range and direction of movement

20 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Fig. 9.9, M&M

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27 X-ray of hand affected by arthritis

28 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Artificial Hip Joint

29 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Mechanics of Movement Arthritis Information  From American Physical Therapists Association (good preventative info) From American Physical Therapists Association (good preventative info)  Arthritis stats from CDC (leading cause of disability) Arthritis stats from CDC (leading cause of disability)  Health Info from NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) Health Info from NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)


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