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Supraglottic Glottic Subglottic Vegitative function Voiced/Voiceless 5 layers of tissue.

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Presentation on theme: "Supraglottic Glottic Subglottic Vegitative function Voiced/Voiceless 5 layers of tissue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supraglottic Glottic Subglottic Vegitative function Voiced/Voiceless 5 layers of tissue

2 Aerodynamic Myoelastic Theory: vibration of the vocal folds is the product of air flow and pressure through a constricted tube interacting with the elastic component of muscle tissue in absence of repetitive muscular contraction Bernoulli Principle: given a constant volume flow of air or fluid, at a point of constriction there will be decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow and an increase in velocity of the flow

3 Phases: Opening Open Closing Closed Sustained Phonation: The interaction of subglottal pressure, tissue elasticity, and constriction as long as pressure flow and vocal fold approximation are maintained One Vocal Fold Cycle

4 Cartilages of the Larynx Cuneiform Cartilage Structures connected by intrinsic ligaments and membranes

5 Fibroelastic Membrane Upper quadrangular membranes Upper quadrangular membranes Aryepiglottic folds Aryepiglottic folds Lower conus elasticus Lower conus elasticus Vocal ligament Vocal ligament

6 Valleculae: a valley found between the base of the tongue and epiglottis within folds arising from the glossoepiglottic ligaments Pyriform Sinus: valley lateral to the vocal folds

7 5 Layers of Tissue: Squamous cell epithelium 1 Lamina propria elastin fibers-random 2 elastin fibers-ap 3 collagen fibers-ap 4 Thyrovocalis muscle 5 Cover: 1,2,3 Body: 4,5 Mucosal Lining: 1,2 Vocal Ligament: 3,4 Muscle: 5

8 Spaces Aditus: entry to the larynx from the pharynx above, entryway to the first cavity Aditus: entry to the larynx from the pharynx above, entryway to the first cavity Vestibule: first cavity of the larynx, between aditus and ventricular/vestibular folds Vestibule: first cavity of the larynx, between aditus and ventricular/vestibular folds Laryngeal ventricle: space between the ventricular folds and vocal folds Laryngeal ventricle: space between the ventricular folds and vocal folds Glottis: space between the vocal folds Glottis: space between the vocal folds

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10 The arytenoid cartilages sit on the superior surface of the cricoid. The cricoarytenoid joint permits rotation, rocking, and gliding.

11 Hyoid Bone: Only bone in the body that is not attached to other bone Supra hyoid: laryngeal elevators Infra hyoid: laryngeal depressors

12 Cricothyroid Joint: contraction of the cricothyroid muscle, the effect is to tense the vocal folds

13 Articular facet of the arytenoid cartilage permits inward rocking, ap gliding, and rotation.

14 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

15 Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles Adductors Innervation: Recurrent Branch of X Vagus LCA: draws muscular process forward, this rocks the arytenoids inward and downward creating adduction LCA: draws muscular process forward, this rocks the arytenoids inward and downward creating adduction TA: pulls the arytenoids together approximating VF, important in medial compression (degree of force applied by the vocal folds at their point of contact) TA: pulls the arytenoids together approximating VF, important in medial compression (degree of force applied by the vocal folds at their point of contact) OA: pulls apex of arytenoid medially which promotes adduction, enforces medial compression, rocks arytenoids down and in, aids in pulling the epiglottis over the larynx, serves tight adduction OA: pulls apex of arytenoid medially which promotes adduction, enforces medial compression, rocks arytenoids down and in, aids in pulling the epiglottis over the larynx, serves tight adduction

16 Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles Abductor Innervation: Recurrent Branch of X Vagus PCA: pulls muscular process posteriorly, abducts vocal folds, direct antagonist to LCA PCA: pulls muscular process posteriorly, abducts vocal folds, direct antagonist to LCA

17 Glottal Tensors CT: rocks the thyroid cartilage downward (pars recta) and forward (pars oblique) thus stretching or tensing the vocal folds, this is the major adjustment for pitch change Inn. Superior Branch of X Vagus CT: rocks the thyroid cartilage downward (pars recta) and forward (pars oblique) thus stretching or tensing the vocal folds, this is the major adjustment for pitch change Inn. Superior Branch of X Vagus ThyV: medial muscle of vocal folds, tenses vocal folds in its activity as antagonist to CT Inn. Recurrent Branch of Vagus ThyV: medial muscle of vocal folds, tenses vocal folds in its activity as antagonist to CT Inn. Recurrent Branch of Vagus

18 Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles Relaxers Innervation: Recurrent Branch of X Vagus ThyM: may be considered part of ThyA, lateral to TV ThyM: may be considered part of ThyA, lateral to TV Lateral fibers of TM adduct and lengthen VFLateral fibers of TM adduct and lengthen VF Medial fibers relax VFMedial fibers relax VF Sup ThyA: Some consider part of TM - Relaxes VF

19 Lateral Cricoaryteniod Muscle

20 Interaryteniod Muscles Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscles

21 Cricothyroid Muscle

22 Thyroarytenoid Muscles

23 Abduction and Adduction

24 Movement due to the Cricothyroid M. Vocal Fold Contraction

25 Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles Supra Hyoid Laryngeal Elevators

26 Digastric: elevate the hyoid, can pull mandible inferiorly if infrahyoids are fixedDigastric: elevate the hyoid, can pull mandible inferiorly if infrahyoids are fixed Anterior: draw the hyoid up and forward, Inn. V Trigeminal Anterior: draw the hyoid up and forward, Inn. V Trigeminal Posterior: draw the hyoid up and back, Inn. V11 Facial Posterior: draw the hyoid up and back, Inn. V11 Facial Stylohyoid: elevates and retracts hyoid bone, with anchoring of infrahyoids could facilitate tongue movement Inn. V11 FacialStylohyoid: elevates and retracts hyoid bone, with anchoring of infrahyoids could facilitate tongue movement Inn. V11 Facial

27 Supra Hyoid Laryngeal Elevators Mylohyoid: forms the floor or the oral cavity, elevates hyoid and projects it forward, elevation of the floor of the mouth during the first stage of deglutition, depress mandible with IH fixed Inn. V Trigeminal Mylohyoid: forms the floor or the oral cavity, elevates hyoid and projects it forward, elevation of the floor of the mouth during the first stage of deglutition, depress mandible with IH fixed Inn. V Trigeminal Geniohyoid: superior to mylohyoid, elevates hyoid, draws it forward, depress mandible with IH fixed Inn. XII Hypoglossal Geniohyoid: superior to mylohyoid, elevates hyoid, draws it forward, depress mandible with IH fixed Inn. XII Hypoglossal

28 Supra Hyoid Laryngeal Elevators Hyoglossus: lingual depressor or hyoid elevator Inn. XII hypoglossal Hyoglossus: lingual depressor or hyoid elevator Inn. XII hypoglossal Genioglossus: muscle of the tongue which will elevate the hyoid Inn. XII Hypoglossal Genioglossus: muscle of the tongue which will elevate the hyoid Inn. XII Hypoglossal Thyropharyngeus: part of inferior constrictor m., propels food through the pharynx, elevates larynx and constricts pharynx, not a SH m. Inn. ansa cervicalis arising from C1- C3 spinal nerves Thyropharyngeus: part of inferior constrictor m., propels food through the pharynx, elevates larynx and constricts pharynx, not a SH m. Inn. ansa cervicalis arising from C1- C3 spinal nerves

29 Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles Infra Hyoid Laryngeal Depressors

30 Infra Hyoid Laryngeal Depressors Sternohyoid: depress hyoid, lowering important following pharyngeal stage of swallow, with SH m. are contracted it will fix hyoid and larynx Inn. ansa cervicallis C1-C3 Sternohyoid: depress hyoid, lowering important following pharyngeal stage of swallow, with SH m. are contracted it will fix hyoid and larynx Inn. ansa cervicallis C1-C3 Omohyoid: two bellies scapula to hyoid, depress hyoid and larynx Inn. ansa cervicalis C1 (sup) C2 and C3 (inf) Omohyoid: two bellies scapula to hyoid, depress hyoid and larynx Inn. ansa cervicalis C1 (sup) C2 and C3 (inf)

31 Infra Hyoid Laryngeal Depressors Sternothyroid: depress thyroid cartilage, draws larynx inferiorly following pharyngeal stage of swallow Inn. spinal nerves from C1 and C2 that course in the hypoglossal nerves Sternothyroid: depress thyroid cartilage, draws larynx inferiorly following pharyngeal stage of swallow Inn. spinal nerves from C1 and C2 that course in the hypoglossal nerves Thyrohyoid: superior counterpart of sternothyroid, either depress hyoid or raise larynx depending on who is fixed Inn. spinal nerves from C1 that course in hypoglossal nerve Thyrohyoid: superior counterpart of sternothyroid, either depress hyoid or raise larynx depending on who is fixed Inn. spinal nerves from C1 that course in hypoglossal nerve

32 Oscillation: continued vibration Elasticity: return to original shape after being displaced Stiffness: strength of the forces held within a given material that restores it to its original shape after being distended Inertia: property of mass that dictates that a body in motion tends to stay in motion Periodic: repeats itself in a predictable fashion Cycle of Vibration: moving from one point in the vibratory pattern to the same point Period: the time it takes to pass through one cycle of vibration

33 Frequency: how often something occurs, how often a cycle of vibration repeats itself, frequency equals 1 divided by the time it takes for one period f=1/T: T=1/f Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) which is the numbers of cycles per second

34 Vocal Fundamental Frequency The primary frequency of vibration: Fo 100Hz The primary frequency of vibration: Fo 100Hz Harmonics (Ho) are multiples of this Fo 200,300,400,500HZ Harmonics (Ho) are multiples of this Fo 200,300,400,500HZ Formant Frequencies are vocal tract resonances, do not relate to the Fo or Ho 400HzF1 2600HzF2 Formant Frequencies are vocal tract resonances, do not relate to the Fo or Ho 400HzF1 2600HzF2

35 Vocal Intensity Relative power or pressure of an acoustic signal Relative power or pressure of an acoustic signal Direct function of the amount of pressure exerted by the sound wave Direct function of the amount of pressure exerted by the sound wave Measured in decibles (dB) Measured in decibles (dB)

36 Vegitative Function Cough Throat Clearing Swallow Abdominal Fixation Laryngeal Postures

37 Vocal Attack Attack: the process of bringing vocal folds together to begin phonation Attack: the process of bringing vocal folds together to begin phonation Simultaneous vocal attack: coordinate adduction and onset of respirationSimultaneous vocal attack: coordinate adduction and onset of respiration Breathy Vocal Attack: starting significant air flow before adducting the vocal foldsBreathy Vocal Attack: starting significant air flow before adducting the vocal folds Glottal Attack: adduction of the vocal folds occurs prior to air flow, hard glottal attack may damage vocal tissuesGlottal Attack: adduction of the vocal folds occurs prior to air flow, hard glottal attack may damage vocal tissues

38 Vocal Register: differences in mode of vibration of vocal foldsVocal Register: differences in mode of vibration of vocal folds Mode of Vibration: pattern of activity that the vocal folds undergo during a cycle of vibration, varies for each register Mode of Vibration: pattern of activity that the vocal folds undergo during a cycle of vibration, varies for each register VF variation dependent on laryngeal tension, medial compression subglottal pressure VF variation dependent on laryngeal tension, medial compression subglottal pressure Register/Mode

39 Registers Modal: the pattern of phonation used in daily conversationModal: the pattern of phonation used in daily conversation Pressed: medial compression is greatly increased, strident or harsh quality, vocal abuse Pressed: medial compression is greatly increased, strident or harsh quality, vocal abuse Breathy : inadaquate closure in closed phase, inefficient with air wastage Breathy : inadaquate closure in closed phase, inefficient with air wastage

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41 Registers Glottal Fry: different or syncopated vibration in low frequency, rough perceptually, low subglottal pressure, reduced vocalis tension, vibrating margin flaccid and thick, strong medial compression due to lateral portion of vocal fold is tensed, long closed cycleGlottal Fry: different or syncopated vibration in low frequency, rough perceptually, low subglottal pressure, reduced vocalis tension, vibrating margin flaccid and thick, strong medial compression due to lateral portion of vocal fold is tensed, long closed cycle Falcetto: elevated pitch, breathy, vocal folds lengthen and are thin, glottis remains open, no closed cycleFalcetto: elevated pitch, breathy, vocal folds lengthen and are thin, glottis remains open, no closed cycle

42 Whispering Not a phonatory mode Not a phonatory mode VF partially adducted and tense VF partially adducted and tense Produces turbulent air streamProduces turbulent air stream Enlarged space in cartilagenous larynxEnlarged space in cartilagenous larynx Breathy vs tense whisperBreathy vs tense whisper

43 Verticle and Transverse Phase Relationships During One Glottic Cycle Vetricle Transverse Verticle Phase:opening and closing is inferior to superior Transverse Phase: less consistent, opening posterior to anterior, closing posterior is last

44 Frequency, Pitch, Pitch Change Pitch Pitch Perceptual correlate of frequencyPerceptual correlate of frequency Important element in speech perceptionImportant element in speech perception Change is perceived when mass of VF and elastic elements changeChange is perceived when mass of VF and elastic elements change Increase by stretching and tensing VF using cricothyroid and vocalis m.Increase by stretching and tensing VF using cricothyroid and vocalis m.

45 Frequency, Pitch, Pitch Change Optimal Pitch Optimal Pitch Most appropriate for an individualMost appropriate for an individual Function of mass and elasticity of VFFunction of mass and elasticity of VF About ¼ octave above the lowest frequency of vibrationAbout ¼ octave above the lowest frequency of vibration Function of gender and ageFunction of gender and age

46 Frequency, Pitch, Pitch Change Habitual Pitch: frequency of vibration of the vocal folds habitually used during speech, ideally same as optimal pitch Habitual Pitch: frequency of vibration of the vocal folds habitually used during speech, ideally same as optimal pitch Average Fundamental Frequency: frequency of vibration of sustained phonation, best determined in a conversational sample Average Fundamental Frequency: frequency of vibration of sustained phonation, best determined in a conversational sample Pitch Range: individual Fo range calculated as difference between lowest and highest frequencies averages around 2 octaves Pitch Range: individual Fo range calculated as difference between lowest and highest frequencies averages around 2 octaves

47 Tension, Length, Mass of VF Tension increased by contraction of the CT and TV, will increase Fo vibration Tension increased by contraction of the CT and TV, will increase Fo vibration Mass per unit length is decreased by lengthening the VF, as mass decreases Fo increases Mass per unit length is decreased by lengthening the VF, as mass decreases Fo increases Mass per unit length increases, tension decreases and Fo decreases Mass per unit length increases, tension decreases and Fo decreases Increased Fo requires increased tension which requires increased subglottic pressure Increased Fo requires increased tension which requires increased subglottic pressure

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49 Intensity and Intensity Change Intensity (SPL): physical measure of power or pressure ratios Loudness: perceptual correlate of intensity, how we perceive pressure or power changes Subglottal Pressure: increased to increase vocal intensity Medial Compression: increased to increase vocal intensity

50 Impedance Measurements on EGG Conversation Level Sustained Vowel Loud Sustained Vowel Longer Closed Phase = Increased Intensity = Increased VF tension, Mass, and Subglottal Pressure

51 Sustained Vowel at Two Intensities

52 Perturbation Frequency: cycle to cycle variability, vocal jitter, measured in % of differences compared to the average period Frequency: cycle to cycle variability, vocal jitter, measured in % of differences compared to the average period Intensity: cycle to cycle variability, vocal shimmer Intensity: cycle to cycle variability, vocal shimmer

53 Other Measures Maximum Phonation Time: the duration of phonation an individual is capable of sustaining, indication of phonatory plus respiratory efficiency Maximum Phonation Time: the duration of phonation an individual is capable of sustaining, indication of phonatory plus respiratory efficiency Diadokokinesis: alternation of articulators (alternate motion rate- AMR), coordination of the phonatory and articulatory system Diadokokinesis: alternation of articulators (alternate motion rate- AMR), coordination of the phonatory and articulatory system

54 Linguistic Aspects Suprasegmentals: parameters of speech above the phonetic level Suprasegmentals: parameters of speech above the phonetic level Prosody: the system of stress used to vary meaning in speechProsody: the system of stress used to vary meaning in speech Pitch, intonation, loudness, stress, duration and rhythm Pitch, intonation, loudness, stress, duration and rhythm

55 Prosody essential for naturalness Intonation: Changes in pitch in speech Intonation: Changes in pitch in speech Stress: Emphasis to syllables or words through frequency and intensity changes, needs greater increase in subglottal pressure Stress: Emphasis to syllables or words through frequency and intensity changes, needs greater increase in subglottal pressure Monotone: monopitch or monoloudness affect naturalnessMonotone: monopitch or monoloudness affect naturalness

56 Declarative Interrogative Fo and Io changes during a question


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