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Skeleton: Axial Lab 4. Classification of Bones Human body consists in 206 bones. They are divided in two groups: Axial skeleton (form the long axis of.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeleton: Axial Lab 4. Classification of Bones Human body consists in 206 bones. They are divided in two groups: Axial skeleton (form the long axis of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeleton: Axial Lab 4

2 Classification of Bones Human body consists in 206 bones. They are divided in two groups: Axial skeleton (form the long axis of the body) includes – bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. Functions: protecting, supporting or carry other body parts. Appendicular skeleton – bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip. Function: locomotion and manipulation of our enviroment

3 Classification of Bones: By Shape Long bones – longer than they are wide (e.g., humerus) Has a shaft plus two ends Figure 6.2a Bones come in many sizes and shapes. For most part, bones are classified by their shape as: long, short flat and irregular Ex: All limb bones except patella and wrist and ankle bones are long bone

4 Classification of Bones: By Shape Figure 6.2b Short bones –Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle –Sesamoid bones “shaped like a sesame seed” that form within tendons (e.g., patella). They vary in size and number in different individual. Some sesamoid bones act to atter the direction of pull of a tendon

5 Classification of Bones: By Shape Flat bones – thin, flattened, and a bit curved (e.g., sternum, and most skull bones) Figure 6.2c

6 Classification of Bones: By Shape Irregular bones – bones with complicated shapes (e.g., vertebrae and hip bones) Figure 6.2d

7 Function of Bones Support – form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs. Ex: Lower limb Protection – provide a protective case for: the brain (bones of skull), spinal cord (vertebrae), and vital organs (rib cage) Movement – provide levers for muscles Mineral storage – bone is a reservoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus Blood cell formation – hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of bones

8 Tuberosity – rounded projection Crest – narrow, prominent ridge of bone Trochanter – large, blunt, irregular surface Line – narrow ridge of bone Bone Markings: Projections – Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachment

9 Tubercle – small rounded projection Epicondyle – raised area above a condyle Spine – sharp, slender projection Process – any bony prominence Bone Markings: Projections – Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachment

10 Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic Bone has both organic and inorganic components. Organic components: 1.-Cells: Osteoblasts – bone-forming cells Osteocytes – mature bone cells Osteoclasts – large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix 2.- Osteoid – unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen

11 The Skeleton The skeleton (“dried up body” or mummy) It is strong, yet light, and almost perfectly adapted for the protective, locomotor and manipulative functions it perform Composed of bones, cartilages, joints and ligaments, accounts for about 20% of body mass. The skeleton is divided into Axial and Appendicular

12 The Axial Skeleton This part of skeleton supports the head, neck and trunk and it protects the brain, spinal cord and the organs in the thorax Eighty bones segregated into three regions –1.- Skull –2.- Vertebral column –3.- Bony thorax

13 The Skull The skull, the body’s most complex bony structure, is formed by the cranium and facial bones Cranium – protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles Facial bones –Supply the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth –Provide openings for the passage of air and food –Anchor the facial muscles of expression

14 Anatomy of the Cranium The cranium can be divided in : 1.- cranial vault (calvaria) 2.- cranial base (floor) Eight cranial bones – two parietal, two temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid Cranial bones are thin and remarkably strong for their weight

15 Frontal Bone Forms the anterior portion of the cranium Articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the coronal suture The most anterior part of the frontal bone is the vertical frontal squama, commonly called the forehead Major markings include the supraorbital margins, the anterior cranial fossa, and the frontal sinuses (internal and lateral to the glabella)

16 Skull: Anterior View Figure 7.2a

17 Skull: Posterior View Figure 7.2b

18 Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures They are curved, rectangular bones. Form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull Figure 7.3a

19 Occipital Bone and Its Major Markings It articulates anteriorly with the paired parietal and temporal bones via the lambdoid and occipitomastoid sutures. It also joins with the sphenoid bone in the cranial floor via a plate called the pharingeal tubercule. Forms most of skull’s posterior wall and base Major markings include the posterior cranial fossa, foramen magnum, occipital condyles, and the hypoglossal canal Figure 7.2b

20 Temporal Bones Figure 7.5 Between the styloid and mastoid processes exist the stylomastoid foramen that allow cranial nerve VII to leave the skull. The mastoid region of the temporal bone exhibits the conspicuous mastoid process, an anchoring site for some neck muscles

21 Sphenoid Bone Figure 7.6a, b

22 Ethmoid Bone Figure 7.7 Allow the olfatory nerves to pass from the smell receptors in the nasal cavites to the brain

23 Mandible and Its Markings Figure 7.8a

24 Maxillary Bone Figure 7.8b The anterior nasal spine allows the infraorbital nerve and artery to reach the face

25 Vertebral Column & Ribs

26 Vertebral Column Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way that a flexible curved structure results –Cervical vertebrae – 7 bones of the neck –Thoracic vertebrae – 12 bones of the torso –Lumbar vertebrae – 5 bones of the lower back –Sacrum – bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones

27 Vertebral Column Figure 7.13

28 Vertebral Column: Curvatures Posteriorly concave curvatures – cervical and lumbar Posteriorly convex curvatures – thoracic and sacral Abnormal spine curvatures include scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve), kyphosis (hunchback), and lordosis (swayback)

29 Vertebral Column: Ligaments Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments – continuous bands down the front and back of the spine from the neck to the sacrum Short ligaments connect adjoining vertebrae together

30 Vertebral Column: Ligaments Figure 7.14a

31 Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs Cushionlike pad composed of two parts –Nucleus pulposus – inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility –Annulus fibrosus – surrounds the nucleus pulposus with a collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage

32 Vertebral Column: Intervertebral Discs Figure 7.14b

33 General Structure of Vertebrae Body or centrum – disc-shaped, weight- bearing region Vertebral arch – composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebral foramen Vertebral foramina – make up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes

34 General Structure of Vertebrae Spinous processes project posteriorly, and transverse processes project laterally Superior and inferior articular processes – protrude superiorly and inferiorly from the pedicle-lamina junctions Intervertebral foramina – lateral openings formed from notched areas on the superior and inferior borders of adjacent pedicles

35 General Structure of Vertebrae Figure 7.15

36 Cervical Vertebrae Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7 ) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae C 3 -C 7 are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large, triangular vertebral foramina Each transverse process contains a transverse foramen

37 Cervical Vertebrae Table 7.2

38 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) The atlas has no body and no spinous process It consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses The superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles

39 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 1 ) Figure 7.16a, b

40 Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2 ) The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae Unique to the axis is the dens, or odontoid process, which projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas The dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas

41 Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C 2 ) Figure 7.16c

42 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C 2 ) Figure 7.17a

43 Thoracic Vertebrae There are twelve vertebrae (T 1 -T 12 ) all of which articulate with ribs Major markings include two facets and two demifacets on the heart-shaped body, the circular vertebral foramen, transverse processes, and a long spinous process The location of the articulate facets prevents flexion and extension, but allows rotation of this area of the spine

44 Thoracic Vertebrae Figure 7.17b

45 Lumbar Vertebrae The five lumbar vertebrae (L 1 -L 5 ) are located in the small of the back and have an enhanced weight-bearing function They have short, thick pedicles and laminae, flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes, and a triangular-shaped vertebral foramen Orientation of articular facets locks the lumbar vertebrae together to provide stability

46 Lumbar Vertebrae Figure 7.17c

47 Sacrum –Consists of five fused vertebrae (S 1 -S 5 ), which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis –It articulates with L 5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfaces of the hip bones –Major markings include the sacral promontory, transverse lines, alae, dorsal sacral foramina, sacral canal, and sacral hiatus

48 Coccyx Coccyx (Tailbone) –The coccyx is made up of four (in some cases three to five) fused vertebrae that articulate superiorly with the sacrum

49 Sacrum and Coccyx: Anterior View Figure 7.18a

50 Characteristics of Cervical,Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae CharacteristicsCervical (3-7)ThoracicLumbar BodySmall, wide side to side Larger than cervical, heart shaped, bears two costal demifacets Massive, kidney shaped Spinous process Short bifid, projects directly posteriorly Long, sharp, projects inferiorly Short, blunt, projects directly posteriorly Vertebral foramen TriangularCircularTriangular Transverse process Contain foraminaBear facets for ribs (except T11-T12) Thin and tapered Sup. and inf. art. process Sup facet→ sup-pos Inf facet → inf-ant Sup facets→ posterior Inf. facets → anterior Sup facet→ posmed Inf. facet → ant-lat MovementsFlex and extension, lateral flex, rotation Rotation, limited lateral flex (ribs), flex & ext prevented Flex and ext, some lat flexion, rotation prevented

51 Homeostatic Imbalance Herniated (prolapsed) disc. Severe or sudden physical trauma to the spine, may result in hernation of one or more discs. A herniated disc (slipped disc) usually involves rupture of the annulus fibrosus followed by protrusion of the spongy nucleus pulposus through the annulus (Fig 7.14). If the protrusion presses on the spinal cord or on spinal nerves exiting from the cord, numbness or excruciating pay result. Treatments: moderated exercise, massage, heat ther. and painkillers if this fail→ surgery

52 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) The thoracic cage is composed of the thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally, and the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly Functions –Forms a protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels –Supports the shoulder girdles and upper limbs –Provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles –Uses intercostal muscles to lift and depress the thorax during breathing

53 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage) Figure 7.19b

54 Sternum (Breastbone) A dagger-shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax Results from the fusion of three bones – the superior manubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoid process Anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, and the xiphisternal joint

55 Ribs There are twelve pair of ribs forming the flaring sides of the thoracic cage All ribs attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae The superior 7 pair (true, or vertebrosternal ribs) attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages Ribs 8-10 (false, or vertebrocondral ribs) attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage Ribs 11-12 (floating, or vertebral ribs) have no anterior attachment

56 Ribs Figure 7.19a

57 Structure of a Typical True Rib Bowed, flat bone consisting of a head, neck, tubercle, and shaft Figure 7.20


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