Presentation on theme: "Introduction The organs: - Paired of Ovaries (Gonads). - paired of Uterine tube (oviduct). - Uterus (metrium). - Vagina. -Vestibule and Vulva. * Reproductive."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction The organs: - Paired of Ovaries (Gonads). - paired of Uterine tube (oviduct). - Uterus (metrium). - Vagina. -Vestibule and Vulva. * Reproductive track is surrounding by The Peritoneum which form the Broad Ligament.
ovary - Ovary round in shape or oval,may nodular. - function: - maturation of the female germ cells. - hormone production. - visceral peritoneal covering of the ovary called superficial epithelium. - tunica albuginia is a condensed connective tissue underlying the epithelium of ovary.
Ovary divide into - Cortex : - outer zone of the ovary.(opposite in mare ). - composed of follicles,corpora lutea,connective tissue. - Medulla: - central area of ovary. opposite in mare ). - contain blood vessels,nerves,lymphatics,smooth muscles, and connective tissue.
- In bitch,queen and mare,ovary located caudal to the kidney in the sublumbar region. - Cow,ewe, and sow at pelvic inlet. - Ovulation fossa : its central depression in the mares ovary where ovulation takes place.
Uterine tube - or oviduct, fallopian tube. - run from ovary to the tip of uterine horn. - convey the oocyte or fertilized egg from ovary to the uterus. - site of fertilization. - compose from : - infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus. - there are opening in the uterine tube open in the center of the infundibulum, it only opening of peritoneal cavity (not in male ).
- Fimbriae is - irregular, finger-like projection on free edge of infundibulum. - it pick up the oocyte and direct it to the infundibulum. -infundibulum is expanded,funnel-shaped ovarian end of the uterine tube.
- Ampulla:- Middle part. has large diameter compared to isthmus. Where the Fertilization process occurs. - Isthmus: * The part closet to Uterine Horn and connected to it. * Thicker than the Ampulla.
Ovarian tube Tow Junction : 1. Ampullary-isthemaic Junction : between the Ampulla's and the Isthmus. 2. Uterotubal Junction : (salpinogouterine) between the Ampulla's and the Uterine Horn. is Gradual in Ruminant and Pigs.
-uterine horn : -two musculomembranous extension of the uterine body. -located entirely in the abdomen. --Dogs and sow have very long horns compared to the body. -mare : short horns equal to the uterine body. -cow and ewe : *long horn and short body. *end of the uterine horn are coiled up like ram horns and continue back parallel to each other. *there intercornual ligaments(dorsal and ventral )giving false impression of a long uterine body.
Long horn and short body
short horns equal to the uterine body
sow genitalia have very long horns compared to the body
Uterus - highly expanded tubular organ. - where the embryo or fetus developed. - compose from : - uterine horn. - body. - cervix. - cervical canal.
Uterine Body - between the cervix and uterine horns. - open into uterine horns and cervix. - lies dorsal to urinary bladder and ventral to the descending colon and rectum.
Uterus - Functions Sperm transport Nourish early embryo Site of embryo implantation Expulsion of fetus and fetal placenta Secretion of PGF2α in absence of fetus
Bicornuate uterus : 1.this type in Ruminant. 2. have long Uterine horns and small Uterine Body.
Cervix - constricted caudal part of the uterus joining the uterus to the vagina. -usually located in pelvic cavity. - have rings cow: 3-4 rings. dog: 5 rings. ewe: 6-7 rings Cervix – Function - Isolates uterus and fetus from external environment -Passage for sperm -Sperm filter -Sperm reservoir
Cervical canal - Canal through cervix,secrete mucous. - have internal uterine ostium and external uterine ostium. - closed except during estrous and birth. - in mare and dogs there a simple cervix bulging into the vagina ( portio vaginalis ) form distinct vaginal recess or fornix. - in cow and ewe there very long cervix have transverse folds called spiral fold to interdigitate. - in sow ther a mound in canal called pulvini.
Cervix spiral fold to interdigitate
Vagina -between cervix and vulva. -with vestibule and vulva form : * female coupulatory organ. *birth canal. -Hymen : vestigial,mucosal fold at the junction of the vagina and the vestibule. - Vaginal fornix (mare &sow):cranioventral recess formed by cervix bulging into vagina, in cow and ewe have craniodorsal recess.
-by vaginal smear we can determine the stage of estrous.
Vestibule - common part between urinary and genital system - connect vagina to the vulva. - in mare and bitch vagina there organized erectile venous plexuses in vestibular walls called vestibular bulbs. - vestibular gland : open in vestibule and lubricate the reproductive organ. - cow, queen, and ewe have major vestibular glands called (glands of bartholin). -bitch,mare, (ewe), and sow have minor vestibular glands.
-external urethral orifice : the urethral opening at the vaginovestibular junction. - female urethra is a tube transporting urine from urinary bladder to vestibule through external urethral orifice. - urethral muscle : skeletal muscle covering the lateral and ventral sides of the urethra - in dog open on a papilla called urethral tubercle. - in sow and cow there suburethral diverticulum which is a blind pocket cranial ? and ventral to the external urethral opening.
Suburethral diverticulum of ruminant
Vulva -The external orifice that terminate the genital tract. Labia -there right and left lips of the vulva. - vulver cleft : opening between the labia leading into vestibule. - The Labia : tow Labia 1. Labia minora : Inner folds, Small in ruminant. 2. Labia majora : Outer folds, Externally
Innervation Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves supply the genital tract. Innervations to the ovary by Sympathetic nerves from the aortiocorenal plexuses. Innervations to the uterine tube by Sympathetic nerves from the aortiocorenal plexuses. Innervations to the uterus by Sympathetic innervation arrives via the right and left Hypogastric n. which extend from the caudal mesenteric plexus to the pelvic plexus.
Innervation Innervation to the Vulva: – Autonomic innervation: Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves supply the vulva, extend from the Pelvic Plexus. – Somatic innervation * pudendal and GenitoFemoral nerves provide somatic sensory innervation to the Labia.
Clitoris -homologue to male penis. -located in the ventral commissure of the vulva. -have left and right crura attached to ischiatic arch. -two crura form body of clitoris. -clitoris have glans which is the only exposed part. -clitoris lies in clitoris fossa surrounded by clitoral prepuce. -os clitoris :a homologue os penis found in bitch.
Innervation Innervation to the Clitoris : the Dorsal nerve of the Clitoris (branch of pudendal nerve ) provide somatic sensory innervation.
Broad ligament -fold of connecting peritoneum,connecting the visceral peritoneum of the female reproductive tract to the parietal peritoneum of the abdominal wall. -in cow is attached along the pelvic inlet,not to the dorsolateral abdominal wall. -Subdivided into : mesovarium, mesosalpinx, and mesometrium. -mesovarium : cranial part of the broad ligament attaching the ovary to the dorsolateral abdominal wall. -blood supply to ovary travel through it. -in dog : proper ligament of ovary which it the caudal continuation of the mesovarium cranial free edge connecting the ovary to the end of uterine horn.
-in dog there suspensory ligament of the ovary which is the mesovarium s cranial free edge attaching the ovary to the last rip. -mesosalpinx : the lateral fold arising from the mesovarium that hold the uterine tube between its two layers. -not attached directly to the abdominal wall. -small slit found in mesosalpinx of dog but cover all the ovary. -in cow,sow and mare it is less extensive,just draping over the ovary. -mesovarium and mesosalpinx form small peritoneal cavity into which projects the ovary called ovarian bursa.
* Mesometrium - attaching the uterine horns and body to the dorsolateral body wall. - round ligament of the uterus : the caudal continuation of the proper ligament of the ovary,extends through the inguinal canal. - Blood supply to uterus traveling through it.