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Muscle and Tendon Mechanics, Learning Outcomes 1.Relationship between muscle force and human strength 2.Numerous influences on skeletal muscle force production.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscle and Tendon Mechanics, Learning Outcomes 1.Relationship between muscle force and human strength 2.Numerous influences on skeletal muscle force production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscle and Tendon Mechanics, Learning Outcomes 1.Relationship between muscle force and human strength 2.Numerous influences on skeletal muscle force production capability 3.A few factors that contribute to connective tissue strength

2 What is required to be strong? The ability to develop large joint torque Again, what does joint torque depends on? 1-muscle force, and 2-corresponding moment arm (perpendicular distance) Both of which are heavily influenced by joint angle How does muscle force relate to human strength?

3 Force, Perpendicular Distance, and Torque Muscle Force Perpendicular Distance Muscle Torque

4 What are some factors that influence skeletal muscle force production? 1.Cross Sectional Area (CSA) 2.Muscle Design 3.Fiber Length 4.Contraction Velocity 5.Fiber Type 6.Neuromuscular Factors

5 CSA: Hypertrophy or Hyperplasia? Hypertrophy: –5% in 6 weeks; 15% in 8 weeks; 9-23% in 3-5 months Hyperplasia: –Antonio & Gonyea, 1993, and McCall et al., 1996

6 Muscle Design Muscle design affects skeletal muscle force production Two basic architectures In-series In-parallel Pennation angle also affects force production Many muscles exhibit differing combinations of these three characteristics

7 Muscle Design: In-series In-series fibers are in line one with another Muscle excursion length = fiber excursion length × fiber number Muscle force = average fiber force This arrangement results in greater ranges of motion and movement speeds, and less force

8 Muscle Design: Parallel Parallel fibers are parallel to one another Muscle excursion length equals fiber excursion length Muscle force equals fiber force × fiber number Facilitates high magnitudes of strength, but usually involves less motion

9 Muscle Design: Pennation Angle Angle is relative to the long axis of muscle (θ > 0) Muscle shortening length is less than fiber shortening length, & muscle force is less than fiber force However, more fibers in a given volume result in more force; results in lower range of motion, but greater force

10 Active force partly depends on overlap of actin and myosin filaments; this overlap partly depends on fiber and sarcomere length This related to active force, however, there are also passive structures that can result in muscle force… resting length Fiber Length ~ resting length

11 Total force developed by a muscle is the sum of active and passive force Peak force is reached at resting, or slightly longer than resting length (~120% of resting) Many muscles reach peak force near the middle of total joint range of motion Fiber Length

12 Muscle force also can depend upon contraction velocity Resistance training increases the isometric load level What does this imply concerning eccentric training? Pros and cons? Contraction Velocity

13 Maximum power is reached at about 33% of peak force and shortening velocity According to this figure, what is theoretically best when training for power? Contraction Velocity & Power

14 At a given speed of shortening, a muscle with more fast-twitch fibers can produce greater force than a muscle with more slow-twitch fibers Fiber Type velocity  force  > 50% FT < 50% FT

15 Neuromuscular Factors: Firing Rate and Recruitment

16 Can Pain Also Affect Muscle Force?

17 Tendon and Ligament Mechanics Tendon and ligament consist of: –70% water –25% collagen –5% ground substance and elastin Ligaments have slightly less elastin and are slightly less strong than tendons

18 Arrangement of collagen fibers Tendon: Very stiff and resistant to tensile forces, but not as resistant to compression or shear forces Ligament: Better suited for non- axial loads, yet slightly less able to resist tensile forces Tendon and Ligament Mechanics

19 These collagen fibers are naturally crimped (wavy) Tendon and Ligament Mechanics

20 Small forces result in strain (~10%) that is elastic and rather spring-like Large forces can result in plastic strain (~20%) Stiffness depends upon CSA and collagen composition Tendons and ligaments are both viscoelastic and anisotropic Tendon and Ligament Mechanics

21 Stress Relaxation: An Unusual Traits of Most Connective Tissue Strain is constant


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