Presentation on theme: "1 Laryngeal Anatomy. 2 Phonation Generation of a voiced sound Accomplished with the larynx (voice box) Voiceless sounds: open vocal folds Voiced sounds:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Laryngeal Anatomy
2 Phonation Generation of a voiced sound Accomplished with the larynx (voice box) Voiceless sounds: open vocal folds Voiced sounds: closed vocal folds
3 Vocal Folds 5 layers of tissue (deep= muscle) Glottis= space between the vocal folds Subglottal= area below the vocal folds Located at the end of the airstream at superior end of trachea
4 Structural Support of the Larynx Larynx is suspended in the neck by a single bone, the hyoid bone. There are 6 laryngeal cartilage's: –3 paired –3 unpaired – provide structural support for the larynx.
5 Laryngeal Cartilage's Epiglottis: - shaped like a long leaf, -base attached to inner portion of anterior rim of the thyroid cartilage, -folds down over airway to protect during swallowing. -composed of elastic cartilage (does not ossify with age...must remain flexible).
6 Thyroid Cartilage: - angled saddle-shaped curve, -anterior attachment of true vocal folds, -posteriorly there are 2 superior cornu and 2 inferior cornu (articulate with cricoid cartilage), -composed of hyaline cartilage- does ossify & limit flexibility with age, -lateral walls are laminae attach to midline of notch. Laryngeal Cartilage's
7 Cricoid : - signet ring shaped, -2 sets of paired faces to allow connection (articulation) with other joints, -cricothyroid joint connects the cricoid to the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. Laryngeal Cartilage's
8 Arytenoids: –Pair of small cartilages shaped like pyramids –Mounted opposite each other on the rim of the signet portion of the cricoid cartilage –2 motions: rotation gliding
9 Laryngeal Cartilage's Corniculate & Cuneiform Cartilage's: –Corniculate: attached to superior tips of the arytenoid cartilage –Cuneiform: embedded in the muscular complex superior to the corniculate –Provide no clear function; may add to the stability to the abduction movement.
14 Arytenoid Movement Rock= Front sides tilt toward or away from each other Glide= Their back sides slide toward or away from each other Abduction= open vocal folds (caused by rocking & gliding) Adduction= closed vocal folds Arytenoids have 2 processes: –Vocal process (vocal folds attach) –Muscular process (muscle attachment)
15 Arytenoid Movement Rocking Abducted Adducted Gliding
17 Hyothyroid Membrane & Ligaments Occupies space between the hyoid bone and superior border of the thyroid cartilage Membrane is thickened medially= Middle Hyothyroid Ligament Posteriorly between the superior thyroid horns the membrane is thickened= Lateral Hyothyroid Ligament
18 Hyoepiglottic Ligament Unpaired, midline, elastic ligament extending from anterior surface of the epiglottis to the upper border of the hyoid bone
19 Cricotracheal Membrane Connects the lower border of the cricoid cartilage with the upper border of the first tracheal ring More extensive then membrane attaching tracheal rings
20 Laryngeal Membranes & Ligaments Intrinsic Laryngeal Membranes: Interconnects the various laryngeal cartilages and helps regulate the extent & direction of their movement –Conus Elasticus –Quadrangle membrane –Aryepiglottic folds –Lateral cricothyroid membrane
21 Conus Elasticus Cavity below the vocal folds is funnel or cone- shaped Continuous sheet of membrane that connects the thyroid, cricoid and arytenoid cartilages with one another Divided into a medial cricothyroid ligament and two lateral cricothyroid membranes Extends from superior border of the arch and lamina of the cricoid cartilage to the upper limits of the true vocal folds
22 Quadrangular Membranes Arise from the lateral margins of the epiglottis and adjacent thyroid cartilage near the angle Fibers coarse posteriorly downward and attach to the corniculate cartilage's
23 Aryepiglottic Folds Superior margins of the quadrangular membranes Cuneiform cartilages embedded here Implicated in the mechanics of swallowing