9 Meniscus InstabilityThe menisci are C-shaped discs of fibrocartilage that are interposed between the condyles of the femur and tibia.Primary function is load transmission or weight bearing.Secondary function is shock absorption during gait.Contribute to joint stability and lubrication.
10 Meniscus InstabilityNerve endings provide proprioceptive feedback for joint position.A tear or loss of the menisci, either partial or complete, hinders their ability to perform.A twisting injury to the knee with the foot in weight bearing can injure the menisci.The outer 20% is vascular – peripheral injuries may heal.
11 Meniscus Instability Clinical Signs and Symptoms Local medial or lateral joint painLimited knee range of motionCrepitus upon movementJoint effusionKnee bucklingPain on walking up and down stairsPain on squatting
12 Apley’s Compression Test Procedure: Patient prone. Flex leg to 90 degrees. Grasp the patient’s ankle and apply downward pressure while you internally and externally rotate the leg.Positive Test: Flexing the knee distorts the meniscus. Downward pressure further stresses the meniscus. Pain or crepitus on either side indicates a meniscus injury on that side.
14 McMurray’s TestProcedure: Patient supine. Flex leg. Externally rotate the leg as you extend. Internally rotate the leg as you extend.Positive Test: Flexion and extension distort the meniscus. Adding external and internal rotation further distorts the meniscus. A palpable or audible click indicates injury of the meniscus.
16 Ligamentous Instability The major ligaments of the knee are the anterior and posterior cruciate and the medial and lateral collateral ligaments.Ligament injuries are among the most serious knee disorders.Usually due to traumatic stress to the knee while bearing weight.
18 Ligamentous Instability Valgus stress may sprain or tear the medial collateral ligament.Varus stress may sprain or tear the lateral collateral ligament.Both of these stresses with a rotational force may sprain or tear the anterior and/or posterior cruciate ligaments.
19 Ligamentous Instability Clinical Signs and SymptomsKnee painLimited range of motionDifficulty in weight bearingJoint effusionKnee giving out; chronic unstable knee
20 Drawer SignProcedure: Patient supine. Flex the leg and place the foot on the table. Grasp behind the knee and pull and push on the leg. Hamstring tendons must be relaxed.Positive Test:
23 Drawer SignMore than 5 mm of tibial movement on the femur when leg is pulled - injury or tear to one or more of the following structures is indicated:Anterior cruciate ligamentPosterolateral capsulePosteromedial capsuleMedial collateral ligament (more than 1cm movement)Iliotibial bandPosterior oblique ligamentArcuate-popliteus complex
25 Drawer SignIf excessive movement occurs when the leg is pushed, an injury to one or more of the following structures in indicated:Posterior cruciate ligamentArcuate-popliteus complexPosterior oblique ligamentAnterior cruciate ligament
26 Lachman’s TestProcedure: Patient supine. Knee 30° flexion. Grasp thigh with one hand to stabilize. Grasp tibia with opposite hand and pull forward.Positive Test: Softened feel or anterior translation of the tibia suggests a possible tear of:Anterior cruciate ligamentPosterior oblique ligament
28 Reverse Lachman’s Test Procedure: Patient prone. Flex leg to 30°. Stabilize posterior thigh with one hand. Push tibia posterior with the other hand.Positive Test: Posterior pressure on the tibia stresses the posterior cruciate ligament. A soft end feel and posterior translation of the tibia are positive findings.
30 Apley’s Distraction Test Procedure: Patient prone. Flex leg to 90°. Stabilize patient’s thigh with your knee. Pull on the ankle while internally and externally rotating the leg.Positive Test: Distraction of the knee takes pressure off the meniscus and puts strain on the medial and lateral collateral ligaments (non-specific).
32 Adduction Stress TestProcedure: Patient supine. Stabilize medial thigh. Grasp lower leg and push medially.Positive Test: Excessive movement of the tibia away from the femur indicates a possible tear of:Tibial collateral ligamentPosterior meniscofemoral ligamentPosterior medial capsuleAnterior cruciate ligamentPosterior cruciate ligament
34 Abduction Stress TestProcedure: Patient supine. Stabilize lateral thigh. Grasp lower leg and pull it laterally.Positive Test: Excessive movement of the tibia away from the femur indicates a possible tear of:Fibular collateral logamentsPosterolateral capsulePosterior cruciate ligamentAnterior cruciate ligament
36 Medial & Lateral Stability Rating Scale Grade 0 No joint OpeningGrade 1+ Less than 0.5 cm joint openingGrade to 1.0 cm joint openingGrade 3+ More than 1cm joint opening
37 Patellofemoral Dysfunction The patella protects the anterior aspect of the knee.It acts as a fulcrum that increases the mechanical advantage of the quadriceps.The patella lies in the trochlear groove. With normal flexion and extension it tracks smoothly in the groove.
38 Patellofemoral Dysfunction Many causes of anterior knee pain involve abnormal tracking of the patella or direct trauma to the patella.Patellofemoral injuries include fractures, dislocations, malalignment syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, and patellofemoral arthritis.
39 Patellofemoral Dysfunction Clinical Signs and SymptomsAnterior knee joint painKnee joint effusionPopping sensationJoint crepitusDiscomfort with stair climbingKnee buckling
40 Patella Grinding TestProcedure: Patient supine. Move patella medially and laterally while pressing down.Positive Test:Pain under the patella - chondromalacia patellae, retropatellar arthritis, or a chondral fracture.Pain on the patella – osteochondritis.Pain over the patella – prepatellar bursitis.
42 Patella Apprehension Test Procedure: Patient supine. Manually displace the patella laterally.Positive Test: A look of apprehension on the patient’s face and a contraction of the quadriceps muscle indicates a chronic tendency to lateral patella dislocation. Pain is also present with this test.
44 Knee Joint EffusionEffusion in and around the knee may be caused by trauma, infection, degenerative joint disease, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or pseudogout.The fluid may contain blood, fat, lymphocytes, and crystals such as urate, pyrophosphate, and oxalate.
45 Knee Joint Effusion Clinical Signs and Symptoms Knee pain on walking Anterior knee inflammationKnee joint warmth to touch
46 Patella Ballottement Test Procedure: With one hand, encircle and press down on the superior aspect of the patella. With the other hand, push the patella against the femur with your finger.Positive Test: If fluid is present in the knee, the patella will elevate when pressure is applied. When the patella is pushed down, it will strike the femur with a tap.
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