vein → round ligament of liver arteries → round ligament of bladder urachus → atrophies Fetal Structure Destiny
If things go wrong… Omphalitis Omphalophlebitis Omphaloarteritis Omphalourachitis Umbilical hernia Patent urachus Remember, even if the external umbilicus looks normal there is could still be an infection!
Preparation Standing +/- sedation Hair clip 4 cm width Xiphoid to prepuce/udder Umbilicus to inguinal ring 7.5-MHz transducer Calves are clipped more on the RIGHT side
Umbilical Vein Calves Travels more to RIGHT side cranially May need left lateral recumbency Largest diameter near stalk intraabdominally Atrophies over time in calves Foals Scan on ventral midline Little change for first month
Calf External Umbilicus VU = Umbilical Vein US = Umbilical Stalk
Calf Umbilical Vein at Liver VU = Umbilical Vein LI = Liver VP = Portal Vein
Umbilical Arteries & Urachus Calves Scanned adjacent to the bladder Arteries end abruptly near apex of bladder Urachus not visualized Foals Scanned near bladder Arteries outline the urachus at bladder apex Urachus not really well defined
But what does it all mean? Calf abnormality Vein > 1.5 – 2.5 cm diameter Artery > 1 cm diameter Visualizing the urachus Foal abnormality Vein > 1 cm diameter Artery > 1.3 cm diameter Combined urachus and arteries > 2.5 cm diameter
Mean diameter (mm) of umbilical structures in clinically normal calves over time from birth Location24 hours1 wk2 wk3 wk Umbilical stalk24.67 ± 3.5720.22 ± 3.9916.78 ± 3.8314.44 ± 3.78 Vein within stalk9.61 ± 4.412.61 ± 1.781.0 ± 1.52n/a Vein near stalk17.67 ± 6.0410.33 ± 5.057.89 ± 4.705.33 ± 4.56 Vein at midpoint11.22 ± 3.607.56 ± 2.244.44 ± 3.401.22 ± 2.44 Vein near liver10.44 ± 4.506.11 ± 3.862.78 ± 4.241.33 ± 2.83 Arteries10.33 ± 1.808.94 ± 2.118.39 ± 1.926.82 ± 1.03 Watson E, Mahaffey MB et.al. 1994 Am J Vet Res, 55(6); 773-782.
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