3What type of joint is the knee? What movements does it permit?  Modified synovial hinge jointFlexion-extensionRotation (medial and lateral)Translocation
4How many articulations are present at the knee? 3 (2x femero-tibial, 1x femero-patellar)
5What are the menisci? Give FOUR functions  Crescent-shaped pieces of fibrocartilage which sit on the tibial condylesIncrease surface area Weight bearing Shock absorbing Locking mechanism participation
11A 35 year old male tears his medial collateral ligament during a football match. What else might be damaged and with what consequence?The medial meniscus, as it is attached to the MCL. This typically leads to pain and swelling at the knee, and the patient may be unable to fully extend their leg.
12What bursae are present around the knee What bursae are present around the knee? What is their bursitis known as?
13What happens when the knee goes into full extension What happens when the knee goes into full extension? How is this reversed?The knee undergoes a passive movement, whereby the femur rotates medially on the tibia and ‘locks’. The ligaments are under tension, stabilising the knee joint.Unlocked by popliteus (lateral rotation)
20A 17 year old female was hit by a moving car on the lateral side of her knee. Why is she at risk of foot drop?Common fibular nerve is subcutaneous at the head of the fibula and at risk of damage/compression
21Describe the surface anatomy of the dorsalis pedis artery
33What ligaments are present at the ankle? Medial collateral (deltoid) x4Tibio-x (-calcaneal, anterior -talar, posterior -talar, - navicular)Lateral collateral x3x-fibular (calcaneo-, ant and post talo-)
34Lateral (it is weaker than the deltoid) Basic diagnosis?Patient landed on his foot ‘funny’, and now cannot weight-bear. There is swelling at the ankle and pain.Malleolar avulsion fractureDo you expect the pain to be on the medial or lateral ankle?Lateral (it is weaker than the deltoid)
35What is it called if the arch support is lost? Name the foot archesWhat is it called if the arch support is lost?