What type of joint is the knee? What movements does it permit?  Modified synovial hinge joint Flexion-extension Rotation (medial and lateral) Translocation
How many articulations are present at the knee? 3 (2x femero-tibial, 1x femero-patellar)
What are the menisci? Give FOUR functions  Crescent-shaped pieces of fibrocartilage which sit on the tibial condyles Increase surface area Weight bearing Shock absorbing Locking mechanism participation
A 35 year old male tears his medial collateral ligament during a football match. What else might be damaged and with what consequence? The medial meniscus, as it is attached to the MCL. This typically leads to pain and swelling at the knee, and the patient may be unable to fully extend their leg.
What bursae are present around the knee? What is their bursitis known as?
What happens when the knee goes into full extension? How is this reversed? The knee undergoes a passive movement, whereby the femur rotates medially on the tibia and ‘locks’. The ligaments are under tension, stabilising the knee joint. Unlocked by popliteus (lateral rotation)
A 17 year old female was hit by a moving car on the lateral side of her knee. Why is she at risk of foot drop? Common fibular nerve is subcutaneous at the head of the fibula and at risk of damage/compression
Describe the surface anatomy of the dorsalis pedis artery
What ligaments are present at the ankle? Medial collateral (deltoid) x4 Tibio-x (-calcaneal, anterior -talar, posterior -talar, - navicular) Lateral collateral x3 x-fibular (calcaneo-, ant and post talo-)
Basic diagnosis? Malleolar avulsion fracture Do you expect the pain to be on the medial or lateral ankle? Patient landed on his foot ‘funny’, and now cannot weight-bear. There is swelling at the ankle and pain. Lateral (it is weaker than the deltoid)
Name the foot arches What is it called if the arch support is lost?