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Knee Anatomy. Knee Joint The most poorly constructed joint in the body. Femur round, tibia flat. Comprised of four bones. –Femur –Tibia –Fibula –Patella.

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Presentation on theme: "Knee Anatomy. Knee Joint The most poorly constructed joint in the body. Femur round, tibia flat. Comprised of four bones. –Femur –Tibia –Fibula –Patella."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knee Anatomy

2 Knee Joint The most poorly constructed joint in the body. Femur round, tibia flat. Comprised of four bones. –Femur –Tibia –Fibula –Patella

3 Femur Medial and Lateral Condyles- distal ends of the femur. Largest bone in the body

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5 Femur Landmarks to know Add. Tubercle Medial and Lateral epicondyles Medial and lateral condyles Intercondylar fossa Patella fossa (not shown)

6 Tibia and Fibula

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9 Fibula Landmarks to know Apex Head Neck Lateral Maelleolus

10 Tibia Landmarks to know Intercondylar eminence Medial and lateral condyles Tibial tuberosity

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13 Patella Patella tendon- attaches to the anterior of the tibia. (tibial tuberosity) Quadriceps tendon-attaches the quadriceps to the patella.

14 Joints Tibiofemoral –Largest joint in body Patellofemoral –Patella contains the thickest cartilage found in the body Superior Tibiofibular –Any movement here is due to movement at the ankle

15 Knee Stabilizers PRIMARY –Medial Collateral Ligament –Lateral Collateral Ligament –Anterior Cruciate Ligament –Posterior Cruciate Ligament SECONDARY –Medial Meniscus “C” shaped –Lateral Meniscus “O” shaped

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17 Cruciate Ligaments Major stabilizing ligaments in the knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)- prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur Injuries caused by hyperflexion, internal rotation, hyperextension

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19 ACL Has Two Bundles –Anteromedial Tight in flexion and extension –Posterolateral Tight in extension Ligament is most lax between 30 – 60 degrees flexion

20 Posterior Cruciate Ligament Prevents posterior translation of the tibia on the femur Resists hyperextension of knee Runs from posterior tibia to anterior femur

21 PCL Fibers are tightest around 30 degrees flexion –Posterolateral fibers are the last to become tight Two times stronger than ACL

22 Collateral Ligament Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)- connect the tibia and the femur. A force from the lateral side could cause a tear. Valgus force

23 Medial Collateral Ligament Two layers –Deep layer is actually a thickening of the joint capsule that blends into the medial meniscus –Superficial layer is what we view as the MCL

24 Collateral Ligament Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)- connect the fibula to the femur. A force from the medial side can cause a tear of the LCL Varus force

25 Lateral Collateral Ligament Attaches to head of fibula Prevents excessive varus and IR forces Tightest in extension, loosest after 30 degrees flexion

26 Cartilage Articulate Cartilage-covers the moving parts of the knee. Chronic damage to articulate cartilage leads to arthritis.

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28 Cartilage Meniscus- half moon shaped cartilage lying between the knee joint.

29 ARTICULAR DISCS Medial Meniscus Lateral Meniscus

30 Meniscal Blood Supply Each Meniscus has 3 zones –Red Zone Outer 1/3: good blood supply –Red/White Zone Middle 1/3: minimal blood supply –White Zone Inner 1/3: avascular (no blood supply) Implications for injury?

31 Meniscal Blood Supply

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