Presentation on theme: "Historic Setting of the Orthodox Church Presented by: Molsey Thomas"— Presentation transcript:
1Historic Setting of the Orthodox Church Presented by: Molsey Thomas The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ TRAINING CERTIFICATE UNIT IHistoric Setting of the Orthodox ChurchPresented by: Molsey Thomas
2YOLO Proud to be an Orthodox SS Teacher? Vbs, bible, SS dir general History is not boring – It reminds us WHO WE ARE!Our hx doesn’t start in 18th century or even in 16th century…It goes all the way to the FIRST century!!!To be an American citizen….As a proud Indian, we know………..To be a proud Orthodox (original & oldest church) SS teacher, we must have an understanding of the fundamental doctrines of our church, importance of our Fathers, the struggles we faced historically and how we found solutions through ecumenical councils.
3Topics covered: The Three Great Councils Church Fathers Monasticism -The Council of Nicea, Constantinople & EphesusChurch Fathers-Apostolic Fathers (2)-Defender of Orthodoxy (1)-Great teachers of the church (4)-Oriental Fathers (4)-Local Fathers (2)-Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Fathers (3)Monasticism-Fathers of Monasticism (2)-Monk’s Life of Worship and Prayer-Monk as a Messenger and Teacher of the Society
4Introduction Early struggles of the church: Persecution (by Jews & Romans) (first 3 centuries)Roman Emperor Constantine became a Christian thru his mother Queen Helena.Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire.HeresiesArianism – Christ is not the same as God the FatherMecedonian heresy – Holy Spirit was createdNestorian heresy – St. Mary is not the mother of God because Christ was not God when he was born.
5The Ecumenical Councils What is an Ecumenical Council?It is an invited meeting of the bishops and leaders of different churches to discuss and decide on controversial teachings within the church and matters concerning faith.Resulted in our doctrines, creed and faith (Theotokos,One United Nature, Holy Trinity, Christology etc.)Jerusalem CouncilThe first council of the Christian ChurchAssembled in Jerusalem at the time of the apostles ~50 A.DMentioned in Bible (Acts:15)Controversy re converting Gentiles to Christians. Some Jewish Christians in the church of Antioch argued that Gentiles must first follow Moses’ law and become a Jew first before he can receive baptism and membership in Christian church.Apostles of the Gentiles: Paul and Barnabas, James (first Bishop of Jerusalem), Peter and leaders of many churches attended this council.Decision was made NOT to give any extra burden to Gentiles.
6Three Great Councils Place & Date Defenders Of faith Heresey Heretics OutcomeNicea, 325 A.DSt.AthanasiusJesus was not the same as God the Father.AriusDefined that Christ is the same as God the Father in substance and in One Essence with the Father.Created first part of the creed.Constantinople,381 A.DSt.Gregory, the TheologianSt.Gregory of NyssaHoly Spirit was not coexistent; but createdMecedoniusDefined teaching on Holy Trinity. Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God, the Life Giver. Completed the creedEphesus, 431 A.DSt. Cyril of AlexandriaChrist was not God when He was born and therefore St.Mary is not the mother of God.NestoriusDefined teaching on Theotokos.Forbade any changes to our creed in the future.
7Some Other Councils mentioned in our book (not recognized by Oriental Orthodox Churches) Place and DateHereticHeresyDefender of OrthodoxyOutcomeSecond Council of Ephesus,441 A.DEutyches(to discuss his excommunicatio)St.DioscorusEutyches denied his heresy and therefore accepted by the council.Did not read Tome of LeoCouncil of Chalcedon,451 A.DBishop LeoTome of Leo- Dual nature of JesusSt. Dioscorus was excommunicated and exiled.Counter Council of ChalcedonDual nature of JesusSt.Timothy(Aelerus)Refuted and cancelled the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon.
8Great Fathers of our Church Fathers who played an important role in the history of the church and in confirming the orthodox faith.We remember these holy fathers in our Thubden #5.Apostolic FathersHoly Fathers who were contemporaries of Jesus and disciples. They were persecuted for their faith. Many of them became martyrs. Their faith and courage strengthened church. They wrote letters to churches to encourage other members to be steadfast in their belief.St.Ignatius – Theophorus (= The Bearer of God)He is said to be the child Jesus picked as an example of humilityWas the 3rd bishop of the Church of Antioch (St.Peter, St.Evodius)After his encounter with Emperor Trajan and refusing to sacrifice for Trajan’s pagan God, he was condemned to be thrown before wild animals in the Roman amphitheatre.
9Apostolic Fathers (Cont’d) St. ClementWas a Roman noble who received Greek education, similar toSt. Paul.Became a Christian through St. PaulWas a bishop of Rome (Rome was one of the ancient Patriarchate/holy see)Wrote biographies of the disciples and letters to confirm Christians in their faith.He is referred by St. Paul in his letter to PhilippiansEmperor Trajan martyred him by throwing him into the Black Sea bound to an anchor
10St. Athanasius – the defender of orthodoxy Fathers of the CouncilChurch Fathers who lived in the 4th and 5th centuries and defended our orthodox faith in the Great CouncilsSt. Athanasius – the defender of orthodoxyBorn of pagan parents in 296 A.D.He was the young deacon who debated against priest Arius in the Council of NiceaBoth Arius and Athanasius were from Alexandria.(one of the ancient Patriarchate/Holy See)All his life, Athanasius had to continually defend, denounce and fight against Arius and his heresy. Because of his fight against Arianism, Athanasius’ life was like the whole world turned against him and he turned against the world. So, he was called Athanasius Contra-Mondum.Because of his continuous suffering and struggle for the faith, he deserved to be called “Apostolic” in likeness to the divine apostles.
11Monastic FathersMonks/ Hermits of our church who were great teachers, missionaries, writers, translators and national leaders.St. Antony – Father of MonasticismLived in Upper Egypt Mid 3rd centuryReceived his calling while listening to the Gospel reading in churchLived alone 20yrs as a hermit.Closely associated with to St. Athanasius in fighting Arianism.St. Pachomius – Father of Communal/Coenobitic MonasticismLived in Upper Egypt end of 3rd centuryBorn of pagan parents/was serving in the Roman armyFounded many monasteries/gained reputation because of his monastic rules:celibacy,obedience,chastity, povery & devotion.St.John Chrysostom – the Golden MouthedSt. John Chrysostom is remembered for “Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom” and as a great teacher/preacher of our church.Mor Ivanios
12Monastic Fathers (Cont’d) St.John Chrysostom – the Golden Mouthed (Mor Ivanios)St. John Chrysostom is remembered for “Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom” and as a great teacher/preacher of our church.St.Basil the GreatOne of the Cappadocian fathersFriend of St.Gregory NazianzenBrother of St. Gregory of Nyssa and Sister MakrinaWrote “The Longer Rule and The Shorter Rule” for monksEstablished a tradition for the church to be responsible to help those are in need. (The Basileiad)He is also remembered for the “St.Basil Liturgy.”St. Gregory the Theologian, NazianzenFriend of St. BasilDefender of the teachings of the church on Holy Trinity at the Council of Constantinople
13Monastic Fathers (Cont’d) St. Gregory of NyssaBrother of St. Basil & Sister MakrinaOne of the three Cappadocian fathersHe was an eminent theologianAlong with St.Gregory the Nazianzen, he defended orthodox faith against the Mecedonian heresy at the second council
14Oriental Church Fathers These are the local church fathers from the oriental churches:St. Dioscorus - Patriarch of Alexandria- Disciple of St.Cyril and became his successor.Defended orthodox faith in both Second Council of Ephesus and at the Council of Chalcedon.St. Severus ( ) - a monk - defender of the One United Nature of Christ – Patriarch of AntiochSt. Timothy (Aelurus) –Patriarch of Alexandria - held a council to cancel the decisions made in the ill famous Council of Chalcedon.
15Military/Soldier Saints – not mentioned in Thubden #5. St. Menas of EgyptSt. George of Cappadocia – April 23rd is the feast daySyrian Church FathersSt. Philoxenos of Mabbug ( ) – He attacked Nestorian heresyMalankara Orthodox Church FathersSt. Gregorios of ParumalaBorn on June 15, 1848 in Chathuruthy family, MulanthuruthyLeft his earthly abode on Nov. 2, 1902 – on a Koodosh Etho Sunday.Canonized as the first Saint of Indian Orthodox Church in 1947He started the monastery/dayara at Parumala
16Malankara Church Fathers (Cont’d) St. Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of VattasserilKnown as Malankara Sabha Bhasuran or the great luminaryBorn on 10/31/1858 in Vattasseril family, MallappallyOrdained as priest by Parumala ThirumeniGreat scholar and authority in Syriac, church history, faith and doctrine, the church fathers and theologyHe was Malankara Malpan and wrote Doctrines of the ChurchHe was instrumental in establishing the Church ConstitutionHe was called Moses of the Malankara ChurchHe was Malankara Metropolitan from 1909 until his death in 1934.
17Malankara Orthodox Church (Cont’d) Eldho Mar Baselios (Kothamangalam Baava)Born in Iraq in A.D. 1593Became the Maphryono (Catholicose) in 1678Came to Kothamangalam in 1685 at the age of 92He came to India to train Syrian Christian in their ancestral faith and get them out of the influence of the Portuguese(Roman Catholics)He consecrated Mar Ivanios as EpiscopaHe departed for his heavenly abode on September 29, 1685His feast is celebrated on October 2nd and 3rd.
18A song of devotion to our Church Malankara Sabhaye Parishudha Sabhaye Masihayude Manavaatti Sabhe… Punya puraathana sabhaye nirayanam Ulakengum nin apadhaanam Malankara Church, Holy Church Bride of the Messiah…. Sacred and Ancient Church, let Your fame be filled all over the world!!