Presentation on theme: "TITLE: Institutional capacity for standards conformity assessment on spices and challenges for Tanzania Paper presented in the 2 nd SAFE project workshop."— Presentation transcript:
TITLE: Institutional capacity for standards conformity assessment on spices and challenges for Tanzania Paper presented in the 2 nd SAFE project workshop held at Oceanic hotel in Bagamoyo, Coast region, Tanzania on Thursday 10 th January, 2008. AUTHORS: A. Akyoo and E. Lazaro
Introduction Conformity assessment: any procedure, direct or indirect, that is used to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled Institutions: ♥ formal rules include laws, contracts, political systems, organizations, and markets ♥ informal rules include norms, traditions, customs, value systems, religions, and social trends Institutional capacity in this sense: existing institutions / organizations /firms that have the requisite equipments and qualified staff to carry out conformity assessment
INTRODUCTION CONT”D Destination markets for Tanzanian spices ►Domestic market – Village mkts, urban markets, Bulking mkt ►Regional markets within Africa – Comoro, Kenya, DRC, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Burundi etc. ►Asian export markets – Gulf states, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India etc ►EU market – Germany and the Netherlands
INTRODUCTION CONT”D Objective ♣ to evaluate prevailing local capacity to carry out standards conformity assessment on EU spices imports from Tanzania. ♥ Why focus on EU? -Domestic mkt does not observe national standards. - Regional and Asian mkts absorb the same product as that which is traded on the domestic mkt. -EU mkt observe international safety standards. A big mkt (22% of world spice imports) that any LDC would like to access. ♦ Importance of conformity assessment In theory; enhances compliance to standards at a lower cost (lower compliance costs) -Protection to local exporters in case of unfavourable abroad test results
Approach ☺Review of literature -Establish standards inherent in each market ☺Survey four major laboratories in Dar ⌂TBS, TIRDO - MIT ⌂TFDA, and GCLA – Ministry of Health ☺Key informant interviews
National stds cont’d – Microbiological specification Limits of micro-organisms in spices Spice type Micro-organism type Mesophilic aerobic bacteria SalmonellaBacillus cereusClostridium perfringens Yeast and moulds Maximum acceptable number of microorganism in spice B/pepper + w/pepper 10 5 010 3 5 x 10 2 10 4 Chillies + capsicums 10 5 010 3 5 x 10 2 10 3 Cardamom10 4 010 3 5 x 10 2 10 2 Curry powder10 5 010 3 5 x 10 2 10 3 Cloves10 4 010 3 5 x 10 2 10 3 Ginger10 5 010 3 5 x 10 2 17 x 10 3 Turmeric10 6 010 3 5 x 10 2 10 3 Source: TBS (1988)
EU safety standards on spices Safety concernEU limitRequired investment 1. SalmonellaZero toleranceLab equipments, staff, reagents 2. Aflatoxins5ppm – Afl.B1 10ppm –Afl. B1+B2+G1+G2 HPLC (High performance liquid chromatograph 3. Pesticide residues Cartap Inorganic bromide Hydrogen phosphide - No MRL set for EU, only individual countries - EU registered pesticides only GC (Gas chromatograph) 4. Heavy metals - Ag, Pb, Cd Zero toleranceAAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometer) 4. Chemical dyes (para red, sudan 1) Zero toleranceLaboratory equipments 5.Sterilization (bacteria)-ETHO prohibited --Steam sterilization Steam sterilization equipment
Testing capacity for TFDA TFDA laboratory toll fee structure Type of food hazard Fees chargeable (US$) Remarks Mycotoxins / aflatoxins 30Contracted out to GCLA Microbial pathogens50Undertaken by TFDA Heavy metals20 @ metalContracted out to GCLA Pesticide residues45 @ pesticideContracted out to GCLA Source: Survey data, 2007
TBS capacity Estimated toll fee structure for TBS laboratory Hazard type Toll fees (Tsh) per parameter Remarks Mycotoxins / aflatoxins 60,000Not yet undertaken. Testing to start following procurement of HPLC Microbial pathogens 12,000Currently undertaken Heavy metals20,000 – 25,000Partly undertaken Pesticides-Not yet undertaken Source: Survey data, 2007.
TIRDO capacity HPLC present but not working – software problem AAS present but yet to start working GC absent Not accredited – in the process of applying
GCLA capacity GCLA fee structure on spices and herbs Type of Analysis Cost (US$)Remarks Moisture content8.00Undertaken Heavy metals23.00 @ metalUndertaken Microbiological examination 55.00A bit > TFDA’s Aflatoxins30.00Undertaken Extraneous matter5.00Undertaken Source: Ministry of Health’s price list for GLCA (June 2003).
ORGANIC CERTIFICATION Foreign based- IMO (Swiss) TANCERT – working under contract with IMO Not accredited. Its application being considered by the International Organic Accreditation Service
Challenges to conformity assessment in the spice industry Lacking accreditation Small industry Weak public-private partnership
Conclusion & recommendations Local conformity assessment capacity for EU spice standards is generally weak Lack of requisite equipments and accreditation are the major hurdles The current mkts may demand higher safety standards in future so it better to prepare. National standards not enforced due to weak linkage btn TBS and Ministry of Agric.
Recommendations Update and enforce national standards Standards docs should be made available to the ministry of Agriculture for dissemination to farmers. Look on the possibility of starting a national accreditation body. Testing bodies to diversify their services to include also primary products not only processed products. Consider establishment of a spices board.