Presentation on theme: "Commercial stake holders, e. g"— Presentation transcript:
1Commercial stake holders, e. g Commercial stake holders, e.g. Suppliers competitors, distributors, retailers.Domestic country stake holderse.g. Domestic country employees,share holders. Domestic countrycustomers, domestic govt..Host country stake holders e.g. local employees and their organisation, pressure groups.host countrygovt. host country community.
2An international business enterprise is tantamount to pressure from a triangle of stakeholders. (a) Commercial stakeholders, such as suppliers, competitors, distributors and retailers, who put commercial pressure upon the firm and stress values of commercial importance.(b) Host country stakeholders, such as local employees and their organisations, pressure groups, host country government and host country community, on the other.(c) Domestic or home country stakeholders, which are home country employees, shareholders, home country customers and the domestic government.
3FACTORS OF BUSINESS OPERATIONS: Culture, market, data, politics, government, company, economy, finance , currency.InternationalOperations(HOST COUNTRY)It is multicultural.Market is fragmented and diverseGetting data is difficult and expensive to obtain high risks of political interferenceGovernment has strong influence on operationsCompany has highly distorted organizational structureHigh risk of economic instability variety of methods used for financial transactions .Currency differ in Stability and value.Domestic Operations(HOME COUNTRY)*Culture is predominately single *Market is more homogeneous *Data is usually available *Political risks is lower *Government gives relative freedom to operate*Company has coherent structure*Economy is stable and more Predictable*Uniformity of operations in finance .*There is single currency
4CENTRAL ISSUES :IN EACH GENERATION MNCs HAVE SERVED ASENGINES OF GROWTH IN THE WORLDECONOMY.THEY HAV BEEN MAJOR FACILITATOR OFTRADE FLOW.THEY HAVE TRASFERED TECHNOLOGIES ANDORGANISATIONAL SKILLS ACROSS BORDER.MULTINATIONAL STRATEGIES HAVE BEENPROMINATE IN NEARLY ALL OF THE WORLD'SMOST DYNAMIC MANUFACTURINGINDUSTRIES SINCE THE LATE NINETEENTHCENTURY.
5Distinction between INTERNATIONAL, MULTINATIONAL. GLOBAL, and TRANSNATIONAL, Corporation.MNCs is usually defined as a firm that controlsoperations or income generating assets in more thanone country.• The scholars differ from each other in charecterising multinational enterprise.• Some scholar suggested that multinationality requiresoperation in minimum number of countries usuallyfive or six or that farm which is active across bordersshould be a certain size before it can called MNCs.•
6Definition of MNC:MNCs can be defined as firms having operations in more than one country, international sales and nationality mix of managers and owners.The multinational company has been defined as "a national company in two or more countries operating in association, with one controlling the other in whole or part”.
7Powers of Multinational First OrderSecond OrderFirst order power isdirect, exercisedthrough amultinational'spolitical or financialstrength.Second-order power in contrast, is indirect, derived from a multinational's organizational know-how technological progress, and status as a representative of cultural values or dominant market ideology.
8The term MNCs is not used for a farm whose sole international involvement is the exporting of goods or services from its home base The essence of the multinational concept is the firm controls income generating assets in at least two countriesINVESTMENTPORTFOLIOFDIInvolves the acquisition of foreign securities by individuals or institutions without any control over the management of the foreign entityIt invests management control. MNCs engaged in FDI because they both own and control assets in foreign countries.
9The impact of MNCs on individual host economies has depended on the type of investment undertaken., its quality as well as quantity.The nature of host economy including its stage of development and its culture.The history of international business in Japan has been the low level of inward FDI compared over all size of economy, while the U.K. has world's largest host economies through out the twentieth century. But it would be entirely misleading to draw the policy conclusion that Government should seek to restrict FDI in their economies if they want to Japanese economic miracle.
10GLOBALISATIONThe adjective "Global" means world wide or more loosely the whole.The noun "GIobalisation" as quite developed recently.Basically "GIobalisation" refers to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as single place.In business "GIobalisation" is conceived exclusively by economic activities, (e.g. Global market place.)
11Organisational Structure Transntional Multinational Global corporation with tightly controlled foreign operations.(Ethnocentricmanagementstyle.)Decentralised organizational structure diverse and perhaps on coordinated set of strategies world wide.(polycentric management style)It permits retaining local flexibility while achieving global integration.(GeocentricManagement style)
12MNCs can be engaged in : • Manufacturing • Services the export/import of naturalresources.• Broadly there are farms which make supply oriented investment and there are firms which engaged in market oriented investment.• Transfer a package of resources across national borders.• Either MNCs have wholly-own subsides, joint ventures, licensing agreements, alliances and long term contracts
13Joint venture: When two or more companies own a foreign farm. Licensing: The contract between independent farms to transfer technologies or resources.Franchising: It is a special type of licensing under which a foreign company grants an individual or company to conduct business in a certain way.International cartels: Agreement between independent farms to maintain prices.
14International collaborative agreements and strategic alliances: Arrangement Arrangement between firms to cooperate-facilitate in new product developments.Long-term contracts between firms.These are the important components of international business.
15Ironically what is often called "Globalization" relates to the triad of the United states, European union and Japan.Globalisation challenges both National economics and business organisations.Government and corporations have to cope up with the new challenges.Globalisation tries for a world wide "Level playing field".It advocates liberalisation and non-discrimination.
16FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FD1) CLUSTERS American ClusterArgentina Colombia VenezuelaBolivia Mexico PhilippinesChile Panama Saudi ArabiaUnited StatesTriadEuropean UnionJapanEU ClusterCzech Republic RussiaHungary BrazilPolandJapanese ClusterSouth KoreaHong KongThailand
17The definition suggests correctly that although global companies are multinationalin doing business in more than one countrytheir composition and character reflectssignificant uni-nationality.Typically a majority of their stock is owned by citizens of their home country; and their top management are dominated by citizen of their home country.
18The difficulties of assessing the impact of MNCs on host economies arise from many ways in which they can make impact. They create employment, but also increase import. The new technologies which they introduce may be accompanied by a package of cultural values which may or may not be welcome.
19But the term also includes other aspects such as environment, socio-cultural aspect etc. Economic Globalisation can be understood as the widest geographic extension possible of international economic integration.It moves beyond national boundaries. Taking the world as single place Globalization's essential criterion isEquality of prices of equal goods and services.(2) Non discrimination in the treatment of goods, or mobility of goods.
20Wages: While child labor may be deemed unethical in a developed country, and it may even be condemned by the United Nation's Chapter of Labor Laws, there may still be the ethical dilemma whether compulsory withdrawal of all child laborers from a firm is to be strictly ordered even if that inevitably leads to starvation in a developing nation.There is no super national state that controls the multinationals. Sony and Toyota in United State, G.M.and Ford in Germany , OPEC with LDCs etc.
21Multinationals are corporations that operate extensively in more than one country, usually through branches or subsidiaries engaged in Production, Marketing or both.They pose special moral problems. Because their activity is not confined to one single nation, no one nation can effectively control them. National laws can effectively circumscribe national farms.
22A manager of MNC has to sit above global and national markets rather than in one of them. He has to see how the product in question can be adopted to the needs and traditions of the particular society, he wishes to penetrate.This concept is called concept of EQUIDISTANCE MANAGER.For example:- Coca Cola has amazingly seventy percent of the soft drink market in Japan. This was achieved by
23carefully establishing a sale and distribution network appropriate to the ethos and expectation of Japanese culture. So MNCs should learn how to work and withindesired market and not simply forced entry by its economic power.
24What is culture?Culture is that ''complex whole which includes. knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" .E.B.Taylor.
25Nature of culture1. Learned: Culture is not inherited or biologically based: it is acquired by learning and experiencing.2.Shared: People as members of a group, organization, or society share culture, it is not specific to single individuals.3. Trans generational: Culture is cumulative, passed down from one generation to the next.4. Symbolic: Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolize or use one thing to represent another.5. Patterned: Culture has structure and is integrated., a change in one part will bring changes in another.6. Adaptive: Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt as^opposed to the more genetically driven adaptive process of animals.
26Cultural Diversity Centralized vs.. decentralized decision making: In some societies, all important organizational decisions are made by top managers. In others. these decisions are diffused throughout the enterprise, and middle and lower level managers actively participate in, and make, key decision.Safety vs.. Risk : In some societies, organizational decision makers are risk-aversive and have great difficulty with conditions of uncertainty. In others risk taking is encouraged, and decision making under certainty is common.
27• Individuals vs.. Group rewards: In some countries, personnel who do outstanding work are given individual rewards in the form of bonuses and commissions. In others, cultural norms require group rewards, and individual rewards are frowned on.• Informal vs.. formal procedures: In some societies, much is accomplished through informal means. In others, formal procedures are set forth and followed rigidly.High vs.. low organizational loyalty: In some societies.people identify very strongly with their organization or employer. In others, people identify with their occupational group, such as engineer or mechanic.• Co-operation vs.. competition: Some societies encourage co-operation between their people. Others encourage competition between their people.
28Pragmatic(Calvinistic/ Protestant Ethics. American CulturePragmatic(Calvinistic/Protestant Ethics.Masculine Christianity, Reserved. Stoic)Ethics Based on Transactions andFair ExchangeIndividualismFree Will/Accountability/ ChoiceMasculine— Uncle Sam MetaphorAmerican SpiritRussian CultureMystical (Russian Orthodox, Mariology Christianity. Feminine. Emotional)Ethics Based onGood TreatmentCollectivismAVOS/' WishfulThinkingFeminine—Mother Russia MetaphorRussian SoulSpectrum of Cultural dimensions Impacting U.S. – Russian Business ethics
29Moral Free SpaceTHE TERM MORAL FREE SPACE IMPLIES THAT IT IS RIGHT AND PROPER FOR COMMUNITIES TO SELF-DEFINE SIGNIFICANT ASCEPTS OF THEIR BUSINESS MORALITY.* CULTURAL DIVERSITY IS EMPHASISED AND ANY SUCH THING AS 'HUMAN ESSENCE' IS REJECTED.HYPERNORMS ARE SECOND-ORDER MORAL CONCEPTS BECAUSE THEY REPRESENT NORMS SUFFICIENTLY FUNDAMENTAL TO SERVE AS A SOURCEOF EVALUATION AND CRITICISM OF COMMUNITY-GENERETED NORMS. '
30ON THE OTHER SIDE THERE IS THE COSMOPOLITANS,WHO DEFEND THE UNIVERSAL CHARACTER OF HUMAN EXPERINCE. OUR AIM HERE IS TO SHOW BY RECOGNING THE DIVERSE COMMUNITIES AND DE- RECOGNIZING THE FACT THAT ONE -SIZE -FIT-ALL SUIT OF CLOTHES ,ONE CAN EVOLVE A UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES AND VALUES THAT IS COMMON TO ALL PEOPLE THAT IS BASED ON A REFLECTION ON THE DEEPEST SOURCES OF HUMAN ETHICAL EXPERIENCE.
31Applying Hofstede's model Hofstede's research findings are invaluable when applied and modified to your specific situation and needs. They provide a starting point for further analysis and research.First, review the similarities and the differences between your situation and that of Hofstede's research sample (within the same country), and decide how the differences affect your application of the model to the target workforce. In particular, look forsub cultural differencesindustry differencesdifferences arising from the organizational culture-
32The strengths of Hofstede's model However, these weaknesses are dwarfed by the strengths of Hofstede's work in comparing cultures and applying cultural analysis to practical management problems.The INFORMATION POPULATION (IBM employees) is controlled across countries, I which means comparisons can be made. This is a strength despite the difficulty of generalizing to other occupational groups within the same national culture The FOUR DIMENSIONS tap into deep cultural values and make significant comparisons between national cultures.The connotations of each dimension are highly relevant. The questions asked of the informants relate to issues of importance to the international manager.No other study compares so many other national cultures in so much detail.Simply, this is the best there is.
33Third, there are TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES in Hofstede's research Third, there are TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES in Hofstede's research. Intuition suggests that some of the connotations listed above overlap. For instance, we find:(Small power distance):Powerful people try to look lesspowerful than they are.(Feminine):Everybody is supposed tobe modest(Larger power distance):Powerful people try to look asimpressive as possible .(Hofstede 1991, p. 43)(Masculine) :Men are supposed to be assertive, ambitious, and tough.(Hofstede 1991, p. 96)Suppose that you come to a country of which you have no knowledge (and which has not contributed informants to Hofstede's study), and you observe that managers normally defer to their knowledgeable subordinates. Are you observing the effects of small power distances, or of high femininity?
34The weaknesses of Hofstede's model Hofstede's analysis is vulnerable on a number of counts.Three problems are discussed here;First (like all national cultural studies), it assumes that NATIONAL TERRITORY and the limits of die culture correspond. But cultural homogeneity cannot be taken for granted in countries which include a range of culture groups or with socially dominant and inferior culture groups: the United States, Brazil, Switzerland (French, German. Italian, Romansch cultures); Belgium (French, Flemish cultures); Spain (Basque, Catalan, and Castillian). The breakup of Yugoslavia during the 1990s demonstrates the futility of trying to create tight political units from disparate national cultures.
35Defining the dimensions: e.g., individualism/collectivism The individualism/collectivism dimension is examined here by way of illustration.We have seen that Hofstede applied the Anglo concept of individualism - that is, in terms of the need to achieve and competitiveness. But other emphases are possible. Writing from a Polish perspective, Czarniawska (1986) refers to American individualism in the United States as a choice made in preference to cooperation. Brummelhuis ('1984) explains the Thai concept of individualism in terms of avoidance and distrust of authority: "The individual's preoccupation is not so much •with self-realization and autonomy as with adaptation to the social or cosmological environment. If no single concept of "individualism" applies, the manager cannot assume that features associated with individualism in Anglo cultures are absent in more collectivist cultures. Similarly he/she cannot lake for granted that all cultures with high individualism scores are equally achievement motivated.Likewise, "collectivist" behavior in one context might have different connotations elsewhere. For instance. Japanese collectivism is organization based; but Chinese collectivism is family based. In Japanese terms, a Taiwanese employee who places his family interests above the interests of the Japanese-owned multinational is disloyal and cannot be fully trusted.
36Second, Hofstede's informants worked within a SINGLE INDUSTRY (the computer industry) and a single multinational. This is misleading for two reasons. In any one country the values of IBM employees are typical only to a small group (educated, generally middle class, city-dwelling): other social groups (for instance unskilled manual workers, public sector employees, family entrepreneurs, etc.) are more or less unrepresented. (Tills problem of representation would occur whichever one company provided informants; the problems arising horn a ran^e of representations are worse.)Also, people work for IBM for different reasons in different cultures. In the United States, a lifetime career in a multinational might be generally desirable. Elsewhere, it may be less so; section 17.4 shows that Hong Kong Chinese usually aim to set up their own companies or to work for the family. A few years spent in a foreign-owned multinational might be regarded as useful training, but not as a long-term commitment.
37Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid this Germany, Japan, and SpainIndividualism vs.collectivism The tendency to look after their self-interest and their family U.S.A., CANADA, DENMARK, AUSTRALIA.
38POWER DISTANCE:The extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally.Countries where people blindly obey the orders of their superiors have high power distance. Example: Mexico, South Korea, and India.Masculinity:A situation in which the dominant values in society is success, money and things. JAPAN.Femininity:The dominant value in society is caring for otherand the quality of life. NORWAY.
39Creating a Map for Your Cross-Cultural Ethical Navigation It's All A SwindlePapa swindles Mama swindlesGranmama's a lying thiefWe're perfectly shameless but we'reBlameless after all its our beliefNowadays the world is rotten honestyhas been forgotten fall in love but afterkissing—check your purse to seewhat's missing Everyone swindles somemy son's a mooch and so's the poochLife's a swindle, yes, it's all a swindle soget what you can from your fellow manGirls and boys today would rather stealthan play and we don't care We tell themget your share Life is short and greed's inseason all mankind has lost its reasonlife is good, knock on wood, knock, knockShops will swindle shoppers swindleevery purchase hides a tale the price is inflatedor Regulated to ensure the store will fail WheelAnd deal and pull a fast one knowing you won'tbe the last one get the goods while they aregoing grab the cash while it is flowing Everyoneswindles some what the heck go bounce a checkLife's n swindle Politicians are magicianswho make swindles Disappear The bribes theyare taking the deals they are Making never reachthe public's ear The left betrays the right dismaysThe country's broke and guess who pays But taxeach swindle in the making profits will be recordbreaking Everyone swindles some so vote forwho will steal for you Life's a swindle
403.3 THE CASE OF THE “SHINJINRUI" This section demonstrates the ambiguity of cultural shift in a complexsociety. This causes problems for the manager who has to decide on aresponse. The data arc drawn from Japan. The conventional Japaneseoffice-worker or "salary man" was traditionally loyal to his boss andcompany to the point of Riving up evenings, weekends, and evenvacations in order to serve their interests. But in the late 1980s, a newGeneration of employees, called shinjinmi (new human beings)developed. They did not fit this model. A shinjinrui is more direct thanthe traditional Japanese. He act-s almost like a Westerner, a gaijin. Hedocs not live for the company and will move on if lie gets the offer of abetter job. He is not keen on overtime, especially if lie has a date witha girl. He has his own plans for his free lime, and they may not includedrinking or playing golf with the boss.3
41Not only younger managers adopt new attitudes to work Not only younger managers adopt new attitudes to work. The story also discusses a survey conducted by an employers' association; only 3 percent of 250 managers still favored such traditional practices as long hours and the arbitrary transference of employees to distant posts where they might he separated from their families.If these attitudes really reflect values, then Japanese culture had shifted so that the old preferences for unconditional hard work and collective loyalty were disappearing. In Hofstedc's terms, the sliinjnmii's involvement with the company was becoming less moral and more: calculative - perhaps reflecting higher individualism. (Sherry and Camargo 1987, note that the individualist English pronouns "I" and "my" were increasingly borrowed l)y Japanese speakers.) Loyalty to employer appeared to be declining; did this reflect fewer needs to avoid uncertainty? Did increased respect for personal freedom and rejection of the company's interference in private life show less masculinity?
423.3. / Why the shinjinrui trend might not hove long-term significance These developments were noted at a time when the Japanese economy was booming. But did they reflect a fundamental shift in Japanese culture? Should a foreign company working in Japan have invested in new management systems on the assumption that the Japanese character was fundamentally altered. and that the shift would survive a down-turn in the economic situation? Or did (lie sliinjinnii reflect a short-lived trend, of no long lasting importance to management?A further newspaper story about the shinjinrui indicates why their seeming revolt against traditional practices could not be taken at face value, and also explains why cultural fundamentals often resist modification. Some scholars doubt whether this new middle class was, at heart, any less group-oriented than other Japanese. Although the shinjinnii might claim to be "individualist," at heart they still identified with the group:Thai will not change. say anthropologists such as Oxford University professor Joy Hendry. unless the current generation of sbinjiiinii departs radically from childrearing methods that have become the norm in Japan.Unlike in the US or Europe. Where children are encouraged to be independent. Japanese mothers still rear their children lo lie totally dependant on home and family by continually warning them of the dangers that link without… Ultimately, this expanded to include the '"group" and eventually the “Country." both of which offer protection from the "dangers'' that exist "out there".. . .'