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Slide 1 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Countermeasures to consider in the Combat against Cyberterrorism Namosha Veerasamy and Dr. Marthie Grobler Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa
Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Modern Urban Battles The US and Iraq Middle East unrest Georgia and Russia Zimbabwe India and Pakistan China and Tibet
Slide 3 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Known Terrorist Groups Al Qaeda – Afghanistan Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA), aka Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna- Spain HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) Hezbollah aka Islamic Jihad-Liberation of Palestine Irish Republican Army (IRA)- Ireland Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) – Turkey Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-Sri Lanka Revolutionary United Front (RUF) – Sierra Leone
Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Introduction Convergance of fear-causing world of terrorism with abstract realm of cyberspace Use technical security exploits Stem from social, political and religious views High-level view of countermeasures in the fight against terrorism
Slide 5 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Other definitions: Pollitt “Cyberterrorism is the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents “ Malicious use of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Infrastructure Cause harm and distress
Slide 6 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Most cited definition from Denning: “Cyberterrorism is the convergence of terrorism and cyberspace. …unlawful attacks and threats of attack against computers, networks, and the information stored …done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people in furtherance of political or social objectives. Further, to qualify a cyberterrorism, an attack should result in violence against persons or property, or at least cause enough harm to generate fear. Attacks that lead to death or bodily injury, explosions, plane crashes, water contamination, or severe economic loss would be examples. Serious attacks against critical infrastructures could be acts of cyberterrorism, depending on their impact. Attacks that disrupt nonessential services or that are mainly a costly nuisance would not.”
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Slide 9 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Types of Terrorism Motivation: religious, political and social Religious- theological beliefs New Age- usually focus on one issue (eg animals) Ethnonationalist separatist: establish new political order based on ethnic dominance Revolutionary (Terrorism to the left): seize political power Far-right extremist (Right- wing): certain people are inferior “Cyberterror: Prospects and Implications,” published in August 1999 by the Center for the Study of Terrorism and Irregular Warfare at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, California (2004)
Slide 10 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Types of Terrorists (Cont…) Religious/Theological beliefs Strong quasi-religious fanatical elements for only total certainty of belief (or total moral relativism) provides justification for taking lives ¹ Certainly of belief that justifies the taking of lives Fastest growing type Unfocussed and target the masses Sacrifice one’s life Simple unstructured does not cause mass destruction Advanced - structured offer rewards and comply with ideology 1. Laqueur, W. (1996), "Postmodern Terrorism", Foreign Affairs, Vol. 75, pp. 24.
Slide 11 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Types of Terrorists (Cont…) Etho-nationalist Fighting to establish a new political order based on ethnic dominance/homogeneity. ² Public recognition Have shown violent tendencies but more targets of symbol of state like public facilities, government representatives Rely on sympathy from community Cyberterror attacks that cause interruptions: DoD Use ICT for propaganda and gathering support 2. Post, J.M. (2005), "The New Face of Terrorism: Socio-Cultural Foundations of Contemporary Terrorism", Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 451-465.
Slide 12 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Types of Terrorists (Cont…) Social-revolutionary Terrorism of the left Seek to overthrow the capitalist economic and social order 3 Change structures and rules Focussed attacks on governments and corporations to protest against commercial and capitalist regimes 3. Post, J.M. (2005), "The New Face of Terrorism: Socio-Cultural Foundations of Contemporary Terrorism", Behavioral Sciences & the Law, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 451-465.
Slide 13 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Types of Terrorists (Cont…) New Age The vulnerability of modern societies to unconventional attacks 4 Use violence when traditional forms of campaigning to not yield results sufficiently fast Examples animal rights groups targeting pharmaceutical companies using arson and sabotage Anti-abortion and environmental groups Disrupt e-commerce and web-based advertising 4. Gearson, J. (2002), "The Nature of Modern Terrorism", The Political Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. s1, pp. 7-24.
Slide 14 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Types of Terrorists (Cont…) Right Wing Outsider” (eg. foreigners, ethnic and religious minorities) is targeted as well as state itself, as they are seen as ineffective or worse under the sway of the outsiders 5 Can be racist Violence is acceptable form of demonstration ICT for propaganda and disruption, selling survivalist gear or distribution of material Strong psychological roots of superiority 5. Michael, G. 2003, Confronting Right Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the USA, Routledge
Slide 15 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Considerations Gangs, tribes, religious and ethnic groups yield power Blurred lines between civilian and military boundaries Consider at a high-level how people’s opinions are shaped Help show growth of insurgency in groups Cyberterrorism merge of terrorism and technology Countermeasures: psychological and technical perspectives
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Slide 17 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Legal and Political Major focus should be law enforcement and military response 1 Treaties, protocols, regulations and acts can ensures fair conduct of relations between nations Laws can help promote acceptable forms of protest and consistent way of dealing with political and religious fanaticism 1 A.K. Cronin, "The diplomacy of counterterrorism lessons learned, ignored and disputed," International Research Group on Political Violence (IRGPV), pp. 1-8, 2002.
Slide 18 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Legal and political International presence eg. Interpol and Council of European Convention on Cyber Crime combating cyberterrorism Military force to retaliate against attacks can also cause group to hide and conduct underground operations No longer simple task to target hierarchical groups- geographically dispersed
Slide 19 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Fusion Centres Intelligence cultural specialists security personnel linguists political military specialists engineers psychological operations media relations economic advisors
Slide 20 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Humanitarian and peace-keeping Assistance to people suffering from famine, repressions, natural disasters and violence can help with conflict resolution Favourable response from the provision of money, food, medicine, education, fuel and employment Charity and education shows the effort to uplift the community
Slide 21 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Analysis Patterns Links Forensics Cultural Tribal Religious Communications linguistics Intelligence gathering from fusion and cultural centres
Slide 22 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Technical Countermeasures Protective, detective and reactive CSIRTs Intrusion prevention Network monitoring Interception and blockage Disaster Recovery Forensics
Slide 23 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za CSIRTs Computer Security Incident Response teams Proactive: assistance with info to prepare and protect systems, technology watch Detective: Identify attack patterns, audits Reactive: Service announcements, incident handling
Slide 24 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Network monitoring Detective Jan 2008, Bush signed directive to monitor Internet traffic on federal computers in response to large no. of attacks Detection of suspicious behaviour: block web site, IP address or port
Slide 25 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Disaster Recovery Plan Contact information for appropriate people Critical devices Procedures Chain-of-command
Slide 26 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Forensics Cyberterrorism First Responders Reactive to handle incident
Slide 27 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Conclusion… Cyberspace potential means through which terrorists could cause chaos Affect psyche of communities Underlying political, social, religious reasoning for violent and extremist behaviour Summary of political, religious, legal, economic, social and technical issues to combat Include countermeasures like laws, fusion centres, education, treaties, network monitoring and CSIRTs
Slide 28 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Discussion…
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